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34 Cards in this Set

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gamete
haploid cell that participates in fetilization by fusing with another haploid cell
binary fission
form of asexual reproduction that produces indentical offspring
gene
section of a chromosome that codes for a protein or RNA molecule
chromosome
structure made of DNA and associated proteins on which genes are located
chromatid
one of a pair of strands of DNA that makeup a chromosome during meiosis or mitosis
centromere
region joining two chromatids
homologus chromosome
a member of a chromosome pair, both of which are similar in shape size and the genes they tie into
diploid
term used to indicate a cell containing two sets of chromosome
haploid
having only one set of chromosomes
zygote
fetilized egg
autosome
a chromosome that is not dirctly involved in determining sex
sex chromosome
one of a pair of chromosome that are involved in determining the sex of an individual
karyotype
array of the chromosomes found in an individual's cells arranged in order of size and shape
cell cycle
repeating five phase sequence of eukaryotic cell growth and division
interphase
period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions of a eukaryotic cell during which the cells carry out routine function, copies its DNA and prepares it to divide
mitosis
process during cell division in which the mucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei and kind of chromosomes
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm to form two seperate cells
cancer
the abnormal growth of cells
spindle
structure composed of centrioles and individual hollow protien fibers that moves chromosomes apart during cell division
meiosis
process during cell division in which the nucleas of a cell completes two successive divisions that produce four cells, each with a chromosome number that has been reduced by half
crossing-over
the exchange of reciprocal segments of DNA by homologus chromosomes at the beginning of neiosis; source of genetic recombination
independent assortment
random distribution of homologus chromosomes during meiosis
spermatogenesis
process by which gametes are produced in male animals
sperm
male gamete
ogenesis
process by which gametes are produced in female animals
ovum
a mature egg cell
asexual reproduction
reproduction that involves only one parent and results in genectically indentical offspring
clone
organism produced by asexual reproduction that is genectically identical to its parent
sexual reproduction
reproduction in which gametes from opposite sexes or mating types untie to form a zygote
life cycle
entire life-span of an organism; summary of all of the stages of an organism
fertilization
the process by which haploid gametes join to form a diploid zygote
sporophyte
diploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alternation of generations
spore
an asexual, resting, reproductie haploid cells
gametophyte
haploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alternation of generations; haploid individual that produces gametes