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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who coined the Latin name for virus?
Beijerinck- for the substance infecting tobacco plants
Virus means ______ in ____.
poison, Latin
The study of viruses is?
Deadly viruses are said to be virulent which means?
it causes diseases.
Viruses couldn't be seen until?
the electron microscope was invented.
What is an obligate intracellular parasite?
When it lives on a host either for shelter or food.
Give 6 viral characteristics.
-Not living organism
-Cannot grow or replicate on their own (inactive particles)
-Can only reproduce inside of a living host cell using its raw materials and enzymes.
-Highly host specific (only infect certain cells)
-Referred to as phages.
What diseases can viruses cause? Give 7.
Small pox
Mononucleosis (mono)
Influenze (flu)
Colds (common cause of common colds is the Rhinovirus)
AIDS from HIV which are caused by retroviruses which have RNA for nucleic acid
Bacteriophages or T-Phages attack what?
Bacterial Cells
What does the tail do?
Helps inject the viral DNA into host cells.
What are used to attach to the hosts?
Tail fibers
What do Retroviruses contain?
What enzyme do Retroviruses have? And what does it help it do?
Reverse Transciptase. It helps it use the RNA to make DNA.
What do Retroviruses do?
Use the host cell's ribosomes and raw materials to make viral proteins.
What are viriods?
Smallest particle that is able to replicate.
What are viriods made up?
Short, single strand of RNA with no capsid.
Prions have no ____ ____ or ________.
nucleic acids, capsids
What are prions made of?
protein particles that have folded incorrectly.
What do prions do?
attack the central nervous system.
What is the Lytic Cycle?
Viral replication that rapidly kills the host cell causing it to lyse (split) or burst.
What are the 5 steps (just names) of the Lytic Cycle?
Lytic Cycle: replication?
Viral DNA inactivates host cell's DNA and uses host's raw materials and ribosomes to make viral DNA, capsids, tails, etc.
Lytic Cycle: injection?
nucleic acid (DNA) of virus injected into host cell.
Lytic Cycle: adsorption?
phage attaches to cell membrane of host
Lytic Cycle: assembly?
new viral parts are combines to make new phages
Lytic Cycle: lysis?
enzymes weaken and destroy the cell membrane causing it to lyse releasing new viruses that infect other cells.
What is the Lysogenic Cycle?
Replication in ehich the virus stays inactive inside the host cell and doesn't immediately kill it.
What are lysogenic viruses called?
Temperate phages
what are the 8 steps of the Lysogenic cycle called? (just names) which of them are different from the Lytic cycle?
-Cell Reproduction

-Cell Reproduction
Lysogenic cycle: Recombination?
Viral DNA joins with the host cell DNA forming an inactive prophage
Lysogenic cycle: cell reproduction?
Host cell reproduces normally until activated by an external stimuli.
Lysogenic cycle: activation?
By an unknown external stimuli, but could be ultraviolet radiation, carcinogens (tar, nicotene, alcohol), etc.
What is an example of a temperate phage?
What are interferon?
Proteins made by cells to fight viruses. They destroy the receptors.
What are two types of viral vaccines?
Inactivated and attenuated
_________ virus vaccines ____ replicate in the _____'s system.
Inactivated, don't, host
Why have attenuated viral vaccines been genetically altered?
so they don't cause disease.
What do Antiviral drugs interfere with?
What are 3 examples of these.
Viral DNA synthesis.

AZT, acyclovir, and azidothymidine
How do new viruses emerge?
Give an example of one.
as rain forests are cleared.
Ebola Virus
What is a nanometer?
1 billionth of a meter.
What are the four characteristics of Bacteria?
Cell Wall Composition
How do they obtain and use energy?
Give one example of a Archaebacteria and a Eubacteria.
A) Methanogens
E) E. Coli
Bacteria: Importance
Nitrogen Fixation (N2->NH3)
Bacteria: Shapes
Bacili- rod shaped
Cocci- spherical (3d circle)
Spirillum- corkscrew
Bacteria: Prefixes
Diplo- pairs. groups of two
Staphlo- clusters
Strepto- chains
Pairs of spherical shaped
Chains of rod shaped
Chains of spherical shaped
Clusters of spherical shaped
Spherical rod shaped
How do you kill bacteria using heat?
-Boiling water
-Autoclabe. very high heat (steam) and pressure
-Bunsen Burner
-Pasteurization- heating of substance so harmful bacteria die
How do you kill bacteria using chemicals (medicine)?
Antiseptics (go on living tissue)
What are the 3 types of bacterial respiration?
Obliage aerobic
Oblige anaerobic
Obligate aerobic? IE? Ferm or Cel Resp?
Needs oxygen or dies.

ie) tuberculosis bacteria

Cellular Respiration
Facultative? IE?
Prefers not to have oxygen but can live with it.

ie) E. coli
Obligate anaerobic? IE? Ferm or Cell Resp?
Can't have oxygen or will die. Oxygen is poisonous to it.

ie) tetanus bacteria that causes lockjaw

What is a colony?
Group of organisms living very close together. Usually from the same species.
Thick internal wall. Encloses the DNA and part of the cytoplasm.
What are the two types of Bacterial reproduction?
Binary Fission
What is Binary Fission?
A form of asexual reproduction in bacteria where 1 cell splits into 2 cells. Parent cell needs to replicate its DNA.
What is Conjugation?
A primitive form of sexual reproduction. It is used very loosely.
Genetic Recombination
(was just mentioned)
What does the DNA/nucleic acid determine?
How it affects.. (was just mentioned too)
What are the two main types of bacteria?
Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
How are they classified by?
motility(ability to move) molecular composition reaction to stains (Gram stain)
contains some genes obtained through genetic combination
Protects the cell and assist in attaching the cell to other surfaces.
Protects the cell against harsh environmental conditions, such as heat or drought.
Pilus (Pili)?
Assist the cell in atatching to other surfaces, which is important for genetic recombination.
Kingdom Archaebacteria. Where is it found? Cell Walls made without ___________.
in harsh environments (undersea volcanic vents).
Cell walls without peptidoglycan.
Methanogens? Where do they live? What do they produce?
Live in anaerobic environments (no oxygen). Produce marsh gas or intestinal gas (methane).
(obilage anaerobe)
What live in very salty waters?
Extreme Halophiles
What live in extremely hot weather?
What does a naked virus lack?
An envelope
How are DNA and RNA viruses subdivided?
By their capsid shape and whether they do or don't have an envelope.
How is the relationship between antibiotics and viruses?
Bad.. Antibiotics can't fight viruses.
What is the injection of weak or dead pathogens?
What is the most important role of bacteria?
What is the name of splitting into two?
Binary Fission
What needs oxygen to live?
What is the first and most important antibiotic?
What is the protective stage of some bacteria?
What is 15lbs of pressure for 15 mins?
Solid medium for growing bacteria?
Viruses the infect bacteria?
Slimy layer around bacterium?
Inhibits growth of bacteria?
Sexual reproduction?
Kills bacteria on surface?
Blood cells that eat invadors?
Used by bacteria to move?
What runs at 37 degrees Celcius?
Lack a nucleus?
Kingdom's of bacteria?
Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
Outer part of a virus?
Dish used to grow bacteria?
Organisms that can't stand oxygen?
Small rings of DNA in bacteria?
What are the most numerous organisms on Earth?
What is Bacteria?
Microscopic prokaryotes (no nucleus nor membrane-bound organelles)
What parts of bacteria carry on photosynthesis and respiration?
Infoldings of the cell membrane.
What does the protective cell wall in bacteria contain?
Peptidoglycan (protein-carbohydrate)
What surrounds bacteria?
the capsule
What is the capsule?
Sticky, protective coating of sugars surrounding bacteria.
How many and in what shapes of chromosomes do bacteria have?
one circular chromosome
Most bacteria are __________?
Used by bacteria to move.
Short, hairlike projections on the cell wall of bacteria used to attach to host or another bacteria when transferring genetic material.
_________ is the main decomposers of _____ organisms so ________ nutrients.
T/F Some bacteria cause disease?
What are the main decomposers of dead orgnaisms?
Why would they even decompose things?
To recycle nutrients
How do bacteria protect themselves from unfavorable conditions?
They form protective endospores around the DNA when conditions become unfavorable. They may stay inactive for several years and then re-activate when conditions become favorable.
How is bacteria classified?
-Mobility (ability to move)
-Molecular Composition
-Reaction to Stains (gram stain)
How are bacteria grouped and what do there names mean?
Eubacteria- true bacteria
Archaebacteria- ancient bacteria
What is plasmid?
Plasmids are small rings of DNA in bacteria that contain some genes obtained through genetic recombination
aka Slime Layer on bacteria that protects the cell and assists in attaching the cell to other surfaces.
Protective stage of some bacteria. Protects the cell against harsh environmental conditions, such as heat or drought.
Pilus? Pili?
sing. plural. Assists the cell in attaching to other surfaces, which is important for genetic recombination.
In which kingdom are most bacteria found?
How can eubacteria be identified?
Gram Staining. (gram positive or negative)
Who developed Gram staining?
Han Gram

Danish Microbiologist
What is peptidoglycan complex?
A protein-sugar
Explain the process of Gram staining.
1- Bacteria stained with CRYSTAL VIOLENT AND IODINE. purple.

2- Rinsed with alcohol to decolorize.

3-Restained with safranin. Red Dye.

4-Bacterial cell walls either stain purple or reddish pink.
What does GRAM POSITIVE mean? Give examples.
-Thick peptidoglycan complex in cell walls.
-Thin layer of lipids.
-stains PURPLE

Lactobacilli- used to make yogurt, buttermilk.

Clostridium- causes tetanus or lockjaw

Streptococcus- causes infections such as "step" throat.
What does GRAM NEGATIVE mean? Give examples.
-Thin layer of peptidoglycan complex
-Extra layer of lipids
-Lipid layer prevents the purple stain and antibiotics from entering (antibiotic resistence)

Spirochetes- cause syphilis and Lyme disease

Rickettsiae- parasitic bacteria carried by ticks that cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Rhizobacteria- grow in root nodules of legumes (soybeans, peanuts) and fix nitrogen from the air for plants.
Is Phylum Cyanobacteria gram - or +?
Gram Negative.

Called blue-green bacteria.
From what main type of bacteria does E.Coli come from?
Enteric Bacteria
Where does Enteric Bacteria live in?
The intestinal tract making Vitamin K and helping break down food.
What percent of the atmosphere is N2? (nitrogen gas?)
What do nitrogen-fixing bacteria do?
They change N2 into usable ammonia (NH3) So plants can use it. Plants can't use just Nitrogen gas.
How do most bacteria reproduce?
Asexually. By Binary Fission.

Chromosome replicates. Than Divides.
What are the 3 forms of genetic recombination?

*All three are involved in transfer of genetic material.
What is another name for germ or pathogen?
Pathogenic bacteria
T or F.

Pathogens can't cause disease.
FALSE. they can.
What can pathogens produce?
poisonous toxins
What are endotoxins made of?
Lipids and Carbohydrates by Gram Negative bacteria and released after the bacteria die (cause high fever, circulatory vessel damage.
What produces endotoxins?
E. coli
What are exotoxins made of
Protein by Gram Positive bactera
What produces exotoxins?
Clostridium tetani
What do antibiotics interfere with?

-Cellular functions
-Synthesis of the cell wall