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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CATALYZE
a substance that initiates
or accelerates a chemical
reaction without itself
being affected
ENZYME
Specialized protein molecule
whose function is to catalyze
reactions.
ACTIVATION
ENERGY
The amount of energy
required to start a reaction.
HOW TO ENZYMES
EFFECT ACTIVATION
ENERGY?
Enzymes reduce the amount
of activation evergy necessary
to start a reaction.
LOCK AND KEY
HYPOTHESIS
Substrate
Enzyme - "key"
Acive Site
Enzyme Substiate Complex
LOCK AND KEY
HYPOTHESIS:
Substrate
Substrate - "lock"
(substances that Enzymes
work on)
LOCK AND KEY
HYPOTHESIS:
Enzyme
Enzyme - "key"
(Name indicates
where it works)
LOCK AND KEY
HYPOTHESIS:
Active Site
Active Site- The site on
an enzyme that matches
the substrate.
LOCK AND KEY
HYPOTHESIS:
Enzyme Substiate
Complex
Enzyme Substiate
Complex -
Substiates combined
in active site.
WHAT
INFLUENCES
ENZYMES ?
Temperature
PH
Concentration of substrates
Concentration of enzymes
Inhibitor molecules
COENZIME
Molecules that assist enzymes.
Help substrate fit better.
Helps enzymes find substrate.
Carrier molecules - Nad + Fad +
AKA - "Vitamins"
WHAT IS ANOTHER
WORD FOR VITAMINS?
Coenzimes
METABOLISM
AND ATP
A
METABOLISM
All chemical reactions
in an organism.
TWO TYPES
OF METABOLISM
Anabolism (Endothermic)
Catacolism (Exothermic)
ANABOLISM
METABOLISM
(Biosynthesis)
Building of large
complex of molecules.
Endothermic.
CATABOLISM
METABOLISM
(Degradation)
Breakdown of large
molecules.
Exothermic.
WHAT DOES ATP
STAND FOR?
Adenosine Triphosphate
WHAT IS ADENOSIE
TRIPHOSPATE (ATP)?
Nucleotide Adenine +
Ribose Sugar,
bonded to 3 phosphates.
ABOUT ATP
Smallest form of energy
in cells. Last two bonds
contain high energy levels.
Mitochondria convert
glucose to ATP Phosphate
(PO3_ is not used but can
be put back into the cycle.
WHAT IS THE
SMALLEST FORM
OF ENERGY IN CELLS?
ATP
WHAT CONVERTS
GLUCOSE TO ATP?
MITOCHONDRIA
WHAT IS ADP?
Adenocene DiPhosphate
WHAT HAPPENS
IN ADP CYCLE?
When one phosphate is
removed from ATP it
becomes a diphosphate
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
A series of Catabolic reactions
that breaks down glucose __________
into _______________ & releases
molecules.
WHERE DOES CELLULAR
RESPIRATION OCCUR
In Mitochondria and
Cytoplasm
TOTAL REACTION
OF CELLULAR
RESPIRATION
________________________________________
IF THERE IS ENOUGH 02
PRESENT WITH ONE
GLUCOSE, HOW MANY
ATP WILL CELL
RESPIRATION PRODUCE?
38 ATP
IF THERE IS NOT ENOUGH
02 PRESENT WITH ONE
GLUCOSE, WHAT WILL BE
PRODUCED IN THE MUSCLES,
AND HOW MANY ATP WILL BE PRODUCED?
Lactic Acid
2 ATP
WHAT ARE THE THREE
STAGES OF CELL RESPIRATION
Glycoysis
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport
System (Chain)
WHAT IS GLYCOSIS
One of the stages of
Cell Respiration.
Initial breakdown of
glucose to pyruvate
(pyrovic acid).
WHERE DOES
GLYCOSIS OCCUR?
In the Cytoplasm
IF THERE IS ENOUGH
02 PRESENT WITH
ONE GLUCOSE, HOW
MANY ATP WILL
CELL RESPIRATION
PRODUCE?
38 ATP
IF THERE IS NOT ENOUGH 02
PRESENT WITH ONE
GLUCOSE, WHAT WILL BE
PRODUCED IN THE MUSCLES,
AND HOW MANY ATP WILL BE PRODUCED?
Lactic Acid
2 ATP
WHAT ARE THE THREE
STAGES OF CELL RESPIRATION
Glycoysis
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport
System (Chain)
WHAT IS GLYCOSIS
The first stage of
Cell Respiration.
Initial breakdown
of glucose to pyruvate
(pyrovic acid).
WHERE DOES
GLYCOSIS OCCUR?
In the Cytoplasm
WHAT IS KREB'S CYCLE?
Second of the three
stages of cell respiration.
The breakdown of
pyruvate (continued
breakdown of food)
WHERE DOES THE
KREB'S CYCLE OCCUR?
In the Mitochondria
WHAT IS THE
BIPRODUCT OF
THE KREB'S CYCLE?
CO2
WHAT IS ELECTRON
TRANSPORT SYSTEM?
The third of the three
stages of cell respiration.
Main producer of ATP.
WHERE DOES THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM OCCUR?
The Mitochondria
GLYSOLYSIS STEP 1
6C GLUCOSE ACTIVELY
TRANSPORTED INTO
THE CELL?
GLYCOLYSIS STEP 2
DURING GLYCOLYSIS ATP
RELAEASES A PHOSPHATE WHICH
ATTACHES TO ONE
END OF THE GLUCOSE
MOLECULE FORMING
GLUCOSE 6- PHOSPHATE
GLYCOLYSIS STEP 3
ANOTHER ATP RELEASES A
PHOSPHATE WHICH ATTACHES
TO THE GLUCOSE MOLECULE
FORMING 6C- GLUCOSE
DIPHOSPHATE
GLYCOLYSIS STEP 4
AN ENZYME REARRANGES
6C-GLUCOSE DIPHOSPHATE
INTO 6C- FRUCTOSE
DIPHOSPHATE
GLYCOLYSIS STEP 5
AN ENSYME SPLITS
6C-FRUSTOSE
DIPHOSPHATE INTO
TWO MOLECULES
CALLED 3C- PHOSPHOGLYCERALDEHYDE
(PGAL)
WHAT IS PGAL?
3C - Phosphoglyceraldehyde
GLYCOLYSIS STEP 6
BOTH PGALS PICK UP A
PHOPHATE FROM
CYTOPLASM AND
BECOME 3C-
DIPHOSPHOGLYCERALDEHYDE
(DIPGAL)
WHAT IS (Di PGAL)?
3C - DiPhosphoglyceraldehyde
GLYCOLYSIS STEP 7
DURING GLYCOSIS EACH
DiPGAL IS OXODIZED BY
NAD+ AND BECOMES
3c-DIPHOSPHOGLYCERIC
ACID (Di PGA)
GLYCOLYSIS STEP 8
A PHOSPHATE IS RELEASED
FROM EACH DI PGA
TO AN ADP MOLECULE,
CREATING 3c-
PHOSPHOGLYCERIC
ACID (PGA)
GLYCOLYSIS STEP 9
THE REMAINING PHOSPHATE
MOLECULE IS RELEASED
FROM EACH PGA TO AN
ADP MOLECULE
CREATING 2 MOLECULES OF
3C-Pyruvate (Pyruvic Acid).
WHAT IS L.E.O.?
WHAT IS L.E.R.?
"THE LION"
Lose Electrons - Oxidation
Gain Electrons - Reduction
GLYCOLYSIS
-Occurs in Cytoplasm
-Glucose is actively transported into cell
-2 ATPs used
-4 ATPSs are produced
-NAD+ NADH (Oxidation/Reduction
-2 molecules of 3c - Pyruvate (Pyruvic Acid) are formed
KREB'S CYCLE
-2nd stage of cell respiration
-Begins in cytoplasm, moves to motochondria
-Starts where Glycolysis ended
(2 3c - Pyruvate molecules)
KREB'S CYCLE #1
DURING KREB'S CYCLE:
AN ENZYME CONVERTS
PYRURATE (3C) INTO
ACETATE (2C);
1 CO2is released
KREB'S CYCLE #2
DURING KREB'S CYCLE:
ACETATE (2C) IS OXIDIZED
BY NAD+ TO PRODUCE
NADH AND IS CARRIED
TO THE E.T.S.
KREB'S CYCLE #3
Co-A picks up the
acetate (2C) & delivers
it to the Kreb's Cycle
in the Mitochondria
for their respiration.
KREB'S CYCLE #4
DURING THE KREB'S CYCLE:
ACETATE (2C) REACTS WITH
OXALOACETATE (4C)
TO FORM CITRATE (6C).
WHAT IS RELEASED?CO-A
IS RELEASED
KREB'S CYCLE #5
ENZYMES REARRANGE
CITRATE (6C)-1 CO2 is released
-Citrate (6C) is oxidized
by NAD+, forming NADH
-Ketogluterate (5C) is oxidized by NAD+ forming NADH
KREB'S CYCLE #7
ENZYMES REARRANGE
KETOGLUERATE (5C)
INTO SUCCINATE.
KREB'S CYLE #8
1 ATP IS PRODUCED
Succinate (4C) is oxidized
by FAD+, forming FADH2
KREB'S CYCLE #9
ENZYMES REARRANGE
SUCCINATE (4C)
NAD+ oxidizes this
molecule to produce NADH
KREB'S CYCLE #10
OXALAOACETATE
(4C) IS PRODUCED
WHAT ARE THE KREB'S
CYCLE RESULTS?
-1 Pyrurate (3C) = 1 turn of the krebiscycle
-3 CO2s are lost
-4 NADH
-1 FADH2
-1 ATP produced
-However, 1 glucose (6c) = 2 pyrurates (3c)
-2 Turns per 1 Glucose
WHAT ARE THE KREB'S CYCLE
RESULTS IN REGARDS TO
THE 2 TURNS PER 1 GLUCOSE?
a) 6 CO2s lost
b) 8 NADH
c) 2 FADH2
d) 2 ATP Produced
ELECTRON
TRANSPORT
SYSTEM (CHAIN)?
-Final Stage of cell respiration
-Occurs in the Cristae of the Mitochondria
-Main producer of ATP
ELECTRON
TRANSPORT
SYSTEM #1
NADH & FADH2 DROP
OFF THEIR ELECTRONS
AND H+ IONS AT
VARIOUS CYTOCHROMES
(Electron Carriers)
WHAT IS A CYTOCHROME?
An electron carrier
ELECTRON
TRANSPORT
SYSTEM #2
AT EACH
CYTOCHOROME,
H ATOMS ARE SPLIT
INTO H+s AND Es.
ELECTRON
TRANSPORT
SYSTEM #3
Several Oxidation and Reduction Reactions Occur.
ELECTRON
TRANSPORT
SYSTEM #4
Electrons are passed
from Cytochrome to
Cytochrome
ELECTRON
TRANSPORT
SYSTEM #5
During each step,
electron energy is released.
ELECTRON
TRANSPORT
SYSTEM #6
Excess H+s are actively
transporeted out of
the Cristae. And they
increase in concentration.
ELECTRON
TRANSPORT
SYSTEM #7
THE TERMINAL CYTOCHROME
USES SOME ELECTRON
ENERGY TO COMBINE
2H+ 1/20 2 to FORM H2O
ELECTRON
TRANSPORT
SYSTEM #8
INCREASED H+S
DIFFUSE BACK INTO
THE CRISTAE, PASSING
THROUGH Ensyme syntestaze
ELECTRON
TRANSPORT
SYSTEM #9
THE KINETIC ENERGY
FROM THE H+s IS
USED BY ATP
SYNTHESTAZE TO
BOND FREE ADP TO
FORM ATP
CELL RESPIRATION
SUMMARY
A
NAME THE THREE
PROCESSES OF
CELL RESPIRATION:
Glycolysis
Kreb's Cycle
Electron Transport System
1 NADH = WHAT?
3 ATP
LOCK AND KEY
HYPOTHESIS
A