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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the major contents of air? What are their percentages?
Nitrogen 78%
Oxygen 21%
Carbon Dioxide and other .04%
What is a pressure gradient? Partial pressure?
Pressure gradient is amount of pressure change occurring over a given distance.

Partial pressure is the pressure a single gas exerts.
What conditions must be in place in order of rgas exchange to occurr in the lungs?
Moist membrane
Pressure gradient
What is the pathway air follows to and from the lungs? Be specific about structures!
Nose, Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchi, alveoli and back
What are the coonductive and respiratory zones? What are the structures of each zone?
Both are parts of the respiratory tract.

Conductive: nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea
Respiratory: alveoli, bronchioles
What is the structure that covers the trachea or larynx during swallowing?
Epiglottis
What is the enzyme that converts CO2 into bicarbonate?
Carbonic anhydrase
What are the muscles that are involved in the movement of air?
Diaphragm
Intercostals
How many O2 molecules can a heme group hold? How many heme groups are in a molecule of hemoglobin and how many molecules of O2 an the hemoglobin molecule carry?
1 O2 molecule per heme group
4 heme groups per hemoglobin
4 O2 molecules per hemobglobin
What is the function of the pleural membrane?
Covers the external surface of the lungs to pervent friction.
What type of tissue of bone?
Connective
Is bone living or dead?
Living
What are the functions of bone?
Support
Movement
Protection
Production of blood
Mineral storage
What do osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts do for bone?
-cyte: mature bone cell
-blast: bone forming
-clast: break down
What are the two compositions of bone?
Spongy
Compact
What are the parts of the bone?
Epiphysis
Diaphysis
Growth plate
Osteon
Periosteum
What are the two types of marrow and their functions?
Red: Produces all blood cells
Yellow: Fat
What is a Haversian canal's function?
Allows blood vessels and nerves to run through bone.
Where is the growth plate located?
Where the epiphysis and diaphysis meet.
What is the model for bone construction during development?
Chondroblasts
What are the 4 shapes used to calssify bones? Give an example of each.
Long: femur
Short: wrists
Irregular: hips
Flat: ribs
What are the 2 divisions of the articulated skeleton?
Axial
Appendicular
What are suture joints?
Immovable joints found in the head
What are suture joints? What are the common characteristics?
Joints with the most mobility (consist of hinge and ball and socket joints) in which the bones are seperated by a thin fluid-filled cavity.
What are the three types of muscle?
Smooth
Cardiac
Skeletal
What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
Specialized endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells that surround the myofibrils and store the calcium needed for the initiation of muscle contraction.
What are transverse tubules?
Tube like portions of the sarcolemma.
What is the functional unit of a muscle called?
Sarcomere
What are the two molecules important for muscle contraction?
Acetycholine
Calcium
Which muscles are striated and voluntary, straited and involuntary, non-straited and involuntary? Which type of muscle contains intercalated disks?
Striated and voluntary: Skeletal
Striated and involuntary: Cardiac
Non-striated and involuntary: Smooth
Intercalated disks: Cardiac