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21 Cards in this Set

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Name the organs of the digestive system in the order in which food passes through them.
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
Which enzymes act on proteins?
Proteins are broken down in the stomach by pepsin and in the small intestine by trypsin and peptidases.
How do villi of the small intestine increase the rate of nutrient absorption?
By increasing the total surface area, villi increase absorption rates.
What role does the pancreas play in digestion?
The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes, which break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
How would chronic diarrhea affect homeostasis of the body?
Diarrhea has a high water content. Chronic diarrhea can result in dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. Fluids and electrolytes must be restored by drinking water and liquids that contain electrolytes regularly.
digestive enzyme found in saliva and pancreatic juices; breaks down starch
amylase
muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach; moves food by peristalsis.
esophagus
series of involuntary smooth muscle contractions along the walls of the digestive tract that move food through the digestive tract.
peristalsis
flap of cartilage that closes over the opening of the respiratory tract during swallowing; prevents food from entering the respiratory tract.
epiglottis
muscular, pouchlike enlargement of the digestive tract where chemical and physical digestion take place.
stomach
enzyme found in gastric juices; begins the chemical digestion of proteins in food; most effective in acidic environments.
pepsin
muscular tube about 6 m long where digestion is completed; connects the stomach and the large intestine.
small intestine
soft, flattened gland that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones; products help break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
pancreas
large, complex organ of the digestive system that produces many chemicals for digestion, including bile.
liver
chemical substance produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder that helps break down fats during digestion.
bile
small organ that stores bile before the bile passes into the duodenum of the small intestine.
gallbladder
single projection on the lining of the small intestine that functions in the absorption of digested food
villus
muscular tube through which indigestible materials are passed to the rectum for excretion.
large intestine
last part of the digestive system through which feces passes before it exits the body through the anus
rectum
What are the three functions of the digestive system?
Digest food, absorb nutrients, eliminate wastes
How do enzymes help in digestion?
Enzymes break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into smaller molecules.