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21 Cards in this Set

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How does penicillin affect a bacterial cell?
It makes holes in the cell wall. Water enters the cell through osmosis until the cell bursts.
A process of sexual reproduction where two bacteria exchange genetic information
Conjugation
What are the seven parts of a bacterial cell?
Capsule, cell wall, plasma membrane, pilus, flagellum, chromosome, and plasmid
A strong structure made by a bacteria to protect it during harsh conditions
Endospore
Bacteria that are killed by oxygen
obligate anaerobe
Why is it possible that bacteria-like cells were the first living organisms?
When the Earth was young there was no oxygen in the air. Some bacteria don't need oxygen to survive.
How do bacteria avoid osmotic rupture (bursting)?
By having a strong, intact cell wall
Poison made by bacteria
Toxin
Type of asexual reproduction when a bacterial cell splits into two identical cells
binary fission
Process of organisms making food by using inorganic compounds like sulfur and nitrogen
chemosynthesis
Bacteria that require oxygen for cellular respiration
obligate aerobes
Process where bacteria convert nitrogen from the air into ammonia that can be used by plants and animals
nitrogen fixation
Sticky, gel-like covering over the cell wall of some bacteria
capsule
Strong covering over the plasma membrane of bacterial cells which give it shape and protects it from bursting
cell wall
Single, circular DNA molecule, not enclosed in a nucleus, containing most of a bacteria's genes
chromosome
Long, whip-like things that help bacteria move
flagellum
small, circular piece of DNA where some bacterial genes are located
plasmid
hair-like things on the outside of a bacterial cell which helps it to stick to things and reproduce
pilus
flexible covering of a bacterial cell which controls what can enter and leave the cell
plasma membrane
Name the two kingdoms of bacteria
Archaebacteria and eubacteria
In what types of environments are archaebacteria found?
Extreme environments - no oxygen, high temperatures, or very salty