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19 Cards in this Set

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Fermemntation
the anaerobic breakdown of sugar into smaller molecules
Sporophore
A sporophore is an aerial hypha that makes spores
Mycelium
the section of fungus that does extracellular digestion and absorption of the digested food
Hypha
A filiment of fungal cells
Chitin
A chemical that is though and flexible
Extracellular Digestion
Digestion that occurs outside the cell
Soredium
A dust-like substance that contains alae and fungus spores.
Haustoria
a hypha of parasitic fungus that absorbs nutrients from the cytoplasm of a host's cells
Antibiotic
a chemical secreted by a live organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of another organism
Alternate host
Parasitic fungi use these to survive extreme envioments (winter, for example) by forming another find of spore and resting on these alternate hosts.
Budding
Budding occurs when a yeast cell's nucleus reproduces inside one cell. It swells until it pops out from the parents cell and becomes its own cell. This is asexual reproduction.
Slime molds
The members of phylum Myxomycotaare slime molds. Most are saprophytic, although a few are parasitic. They generally do not harm their natural surroundings as they feed on bacteria. They need moisture to survive.
history of penicillin
Discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming (an English physician), penicillin is a very useful fungus. He accidentially left a bacteria culture open. When he came back, a blue mold had grown. He saw that the mold killed bacteria. He and two others discovered it could be used for human bacteria and thus the first antibiotic was discovered.
Lichen
Produced by a mutualistic reltionship between a fungus and an algae. They grow in many places, and because of their mutualistic reltionship, they can survive where other organisms can't.
Fungus - protects
Algae - provides food by photosynthesis
They reproduce by soredium.
Plasmodium (slime molds)
A few are parasitic, but most are saphrophitic.
chytrids
- Most are saphrophitic, some are parasitic.
- Parasitci example: synchytrium endobioticum.
- Causes potato wart.
Rusts
- Typically grow on living plants
- Make crops virtually useless
- ridding it of its alternate host gets rid of the problem
Smuts
- Also feed on crops, make them virtually useless
- Research has resulted in crops that are not immune, but less likely to be ruined by fungi.
Shelf Fungi
- Live on dead wood or trees
- Parasitic only on trees (not dead wood)