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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System
(CNS)
*brain & spinal cord
*recieves info, generates thought, directs responses
*10 to 100 billion neurons
Meninges

Meningitis
*three layers of connective tissue surrounding the brain & spinal cord
*infection of fluid & meninges
Cerebrospinal fluid
*clear fluid between the meninges
*cushions & nourishes cells of brain, spinal cord
*similar to blood plasma
*circulates around CNS
Blood-brain barrier
*walls of capillaries in brain are less permeable to certain chemicals so that those certain chemicals are not allowed into brain (prevents damage)
Gray matter
*contains cell bodies of motor and association neurons that control voluntary muscles & autonomic nervous system
*"H" - shaped, or butterfly-shaped
*also has neurons that communicate with brain & other areas of spinal cord
White matter
*axons are coated with myelin
*carry signals up & down spinal cord, traveling to & from brain
Dorsal root
*has axons of sensory neurons
Dorsal root ganglion
*has cell bodies of sensory neurons
Ventral root
*contains axons of motor neurons
Peripheral nerve
*dorsal & ventral roots come together
Central canal
*hollow tube through the spinal cord
*cerebrospinal fluid circulates here
Epidural Space
*anesthesia is injected

example - numb lower body for childbirth
Hindbrain
*consists of medulla, pons, & cerebellum
Medulla
*extension of spinal cord
*controls automatic functions: breathing, BP, heart rate, swallowing
Pons
*regulates sleep/wake transitions, stages of sleep, rate & pattern of breathing
Cerebellum
*coordinates some body movements
*receives info from brain & sensors in uscles & joints to cause smooth movements & guide body position
*fine coordination, diving
Midbrain
*small area of brain, contains the reticular formation
Reticular formation
*relay center that recieves info from many areas of the body & the brain, filters or screen it before it reaches the conscious brain
Forebrain
aka cerebrum
Thalamus
*sends info from body to limibic system & cerebal cortex
*also sends info from cerebellum & limbic systen to cerebrum
Limbic system
*arc-shaped structures
*produce emotions, drives, & primitive behaviors
ex. fear, anger, hunger, thirst, pleasure, sexual response/helps form memories
Hypothalamus
*"under thalamus", small
*contains neurosecretory cells that make/release horomones
*helps control autonomic nervous system
*helps maintain homeostasis (control body temp., amount H2O, food intake, sleep/wake cycle)
Amygdala
*contains neurons that give sensation of pleasure, fear, sexual pleasure when stimulated
*more active during teen years, so teens tend to use emotional rather than reason(logic) to make decisions
Hippocampus
*can cause emotions: rage, sexual response
*helps form long-term memory is important for learning
Cerebral cortex
*outer layer of cerebrum or forebrain
*gray matter receives sensory info
*cerebral cortex & most of forebrain underneath it are divided in half - 2 cerebral hemispheres (left & right)
Corpus callosum
*bundle of axons by which 2 hempispheres communicate
Convolutions
*wrinkles, gyra
*neurons that are formed on the cerebral cortex that greatly increase the surface area of human brain
Frontal lobes
*speeche, higher intellectual thought, agression control, future planning
Parietal lobes
*sensory area
Occipital lobes
*vision
Temporal lobes
*memory, language comprehension, hearing
Primary sensory area of cerebral cortex
*converts info from sensory organs into impressions
Association area of cerebral cortex
*interprets info from sensory organs into recognizable material or objects
ex. sound-is it siren, voice, music...?
visual-is it a cat, word on a page...?
Primary motor area of cerebral cortex
*command complex movements to occur
Parkinson's
*brain disorder where there is not enough dopamine being made by cells of the substantia nigra of brain
*lack of coordinated movements
Alzheimer's
*brain disorder where there is a build up of protein (beta-amyloid) plaques
*losing memory
Mechanoreceptors
*sensory receptor(neurons_ that detects movement, gravity, pressure, touch
Stroke
*may cause damage to one area of the brain but may by compensated for by training neurons in other area/hemisphere of brain - new pathways
How many spinal nerves & cranial nerves are in humans?
*31 pairs of spinal nerves
*12 pairs of cranial nerves (go directly to brain)
What is the purpose of convolutions of cerebral cortex?
*greatly increase the surface area of human brain
What do the left & right hemispheres of cerebrum control?
*Left cerebral hemisphere: controls right side of body (below the head), language, math, writing, logic
*right cerebral hemisphere: controls left side of body(below head), music & art, spatial perception
How do PET scans work to show brain activity?
(possitron emission topography)
*uses radioactive glucose to show which area of brain is most metabolically active(uses most energy)during certain task
How do fMRI scans work to show brain activity?
(functional magnetic resonance imaging)
*prodices a moving picture showing which part of brain is most active by measuring oxygen in brain
What are the mechanisms involved in the formation of working memory?
(short term)
*achieved by repeated activity along a specific neural circuit or pathways
*sometimes involves temporay biochemical change(neurotransmiter) or strong synapse connections
What are the mechanisms involved in the formation of long-term memory?
*achieved by formation of long-term(somewhat permanant) synapse connections, or by strengthening weak connections, or by increasing the release of neurotransmitters or number of receptors
What 2 parts of the brain help us learn and retrieve memories?
*temporal loves of cerebral cortex are very important in memory recall
*hippocampus: in both hemispheres of temperal lobes, helps with learning memories; damages to hippocampus inpmacts transfer or working memory to long-term memory
ex. lack of recognition of some person day after day
What was learned from Phineas Gage's accident?
1848- dramatic injury to his frontal lobes
*before injury-pleasant, hard working
*after injury-short tempered, unable to plan ahead