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89 Cards in this Set

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radially symmetrical, stinging cells
Jellyfish, sea anemones, corals
Cnidarians
no tissue or organs
filter feeding
sponges
the division of a nucleus into two genetically, identical nuclei, along with cytokinesis, leads to the formation of two identical daughter cells
growth and replacement
mitosis
arthropods
exoskeleton made of chitin
crabs
has a 4 chamber heart, like birds

reptiles=3 chamber
fish=2 chamber
crocodiles
chidarians
body structure like a pie, it's possible to make multiple slices all going through the center, with identical pieces
radially symetrical
barrier of reproduction caused by the infertility of hybrid individuals, or inability to survive long after fertilization
postzygotic barrier to reproduction
an altercation in the base-pair sequence of an individual's DNA
may arise spontaneously or following exposure to a mutation
mutation
head and tail
one body opening
tapeworms
flukes
flatworms
a mechanism of evolution that occurs when there is heritable variation for a trait and individuals with one version of the trait have greater reproductive success than do individuals with a different version of that trait
survival of the fitest
natural selection
have hair, mammory glands, and facial muscles
monotremes lay eggs
marsupials have a pouch
placental mammals
mammals
gas found in atmosphere when earth began
methane (CH4)
1 species splits into 2 distinct species, 1st phase=reproductive isolation
2nd=genetic divergence, in which 2 populations evolve over time as seperate entities with a physical and behavioral differences
speciation
no digestive system
flatworms
tape worms
formation of a head where senses are all towards the front
cephalization
6 legs
complete metamorphosis
butterflies
eat meat: survive only on meat
lions, tigers
short digestive system makes digesting meat easier
carnivores
no jaws, secret muscles, cartilaginous skeleton, no paired fins
hagfish
inheritable
natural selection
heritable
describes features that are inherited from a common ancestor
homologous
sting ray, shark, skates, rays, hagfish, lampreys
skeleton made completely from cartilage
cartilaginous fish
squids, octopi, cuttle fish
no shell
cephalopods
molluscus, bihalves, complete gut, filter feeders
shell
clams
jelly fish, blind gut, corals, anenomies
stinging, toxic cells
chidaria
nucleotide, pairs with cytocine
guanine
genetic makeup
genotype
selection for both of extremes
often leads to speciation
disruptive selection
intermidiate=best fit
(high)AA (low)Aa (high)aa

(low)AA (high)Aa (low)aa
stabilizing selection
cephalopods
no shell
molluscs
cuttlefish
selecting for 1 extreme trait

(high)AA (low)Aa and aa
directional selection
cell bound by a plasma membrane, no nucleus or other organelles
prokaryotic organism
segmented worms
complete gut
earthworms
change in allele frequency within a population
evolution
natural populations of organisms that can interbreed and are reproductively isolated from other such groups
species
selection that, for a given traits, produces that greatest fitness at the intermediate point of the phenotype range
stabalizing selection
sponges
highest level of organization in sponges
no tissue
assymetrical
collar cells
organisms in the same environment develope similar structures
(analogous structures)
convergent evolutions
arachnid
8 legs
scorpions
worms with segmented bodies
segmented worms
change of allele frequencies in a population
migration and disease effect small populations faster than latger populations
genetic drift
same as species
group-- same area-- living together
population
nucleotide
pairs with thymine
adenine
20 of them
monomers for proteins
amino acids
found in the beginning of time instead of oxygen
ammonia (NH3)
earthworms, leeches
complete guy
hermaphrodite
annelida (segmented worms)
spider, crab, lobster
pod-- foot
arthropod
4 feet per section
millipedes
self feeders, take organic and make it into organic
CO2---->C6H12O6
autotrophs
science that supports evolution
camelids
biogeography
traits that are variable in a population
genetic variation
feathers, wings, reptiles
warm blood
cloaca
birds
complete meta
6 legs
butterfly
meat, lion, tiger
short digestive system
carnivores
ray, skate, shark
cartilage skeleton
cartilaginous
squid, octopi, cuttle fish
cephalopoda
break down organic molecules
digestion
nucleotides---- 4 (ATGC)
DNA molecules
archea, bacteria prokaryotic
eukarya eukaryotic
domains
lung fish
gulp air
extant air- breathing fish
group from one population that moves to a new area
their gene frequency will be different
amish
founder effect
insect
4 chromosomes
fruit flies
break down of sugar
part of cellular respiration
glycolosis
phylogenic tree that shows the history of a species
speciation event--->population of first organism--->biodiversity--->continued speciation
phylogenetic history
the evolutionary history of organisms
phylogeny
a classification of organisms consisting of related classes
phylum
the science of the function of living systems. It is a subcategory of biology. In physiology, the scientific method is applied to determine how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical function that they have in a living system.
physiological process
tapeworm
a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrate animals. no body cavity, and no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs
platyhelminthes
the doubling of the number of sets of chromosomes in an individual
polyploidy
animals of the phylum Porifera.Their bodies consist of jelly-like mesohyl sandwiched between two thin layers of cells. Sponges do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems.
porifera (sponges)
a barrier to reproduction caused by the physical inability of individuals to mate with each other, or the inability of the male's reproductive cell to fertilize the female's reproductive cell
prezygotic barrier to reproduction
one celled organisms
prokaryotes
"Panmixia"
all individuals are potential partners. This assumes that there are no mating restrictions, neither genetic or behavioural

In genetics, random mating involves the mating of individuals regardless of any physical, genetic, or social preference.
random mating
fish species characterized by rigid bones and a mouth at the apex of the body; they are so called because their fins are lined with hardened rays.
ray-finned fish
genetic (heritable) basis of any phenotype which gives a reproductive advantage will become more common in a population (see allele frequency )
reproductive advantage
inability of individuals from two populations to produce fertile offspring together
reproductive isolation
process by which all living organisms extract energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules and use it for fuel in life processes
respiration
populations that can interbreed with neighboring populations but not with populations separated by larger geographical distances
ring species
worm phylum characterized by a long, narrow, unsegmented body and growth by molting; also called nematodes
roundwords
paired fins
jaws for capturing prey
sharks
gastropod molluscs
one piece curved shell
snails
?
snakes
cephalopods
8 short tentacles
2 long suckers
free swimming
contains about 300 species
squid
amount of time a species can go without food
can be evolved to resist starving to death (fruit flies)
starvation resistance
speciation that results not from geographic isolation but as a result of polyploidy or hybridization and allopolyploidy
uncommon among animals but common among plants
sympatry
populations of organisms that interbreed, or could possibly interbreed, with each other under certain conditions, and that cannot interbreed with organisms outside their own group
biological species concept
physical evidence of organisms that lived in the past
fossil record
?
turtles
experiment demonstrating how complex organic molecules could have arisen in earth's early environment.
Urey and Miller
structure, once useful to organisms but which has lost its function over evolutionary time
ex. human appendix
vestigial structures