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28 Cards in this Set

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Polygenic traits
trait controlled by two or more genes, eye color and skin color
Mendel's Laws
~Law of segregation-gene pairs seperate when gametes form~Law of independent assortment-gene pairs segregate into gametes randomly and independently~Law of dominance-dominant allele is expressed and recessive allele is hidden
Example of recessive and dominant diseases
D-Huntington disease-fatal, deteriorates the nervous system, appears late 30's or 40's R-Albinism-no skin pigment, white rabbits with pink eyes
Dihybrid
studying two traits at a time, 16 squares
Multiple allele
three or more alleles, blood type
Codominance
two different alleles for the same trait are expressed fully, blood type
Allele
distinct from a gene, yellow or green peas. Use letters to represent them
Carrier
carries a recessive trait and does not express it
Dominant Allele
form of gene that is fully expressed, captial letters
Why are there more recessive than dominant diseases?
Because if a dominant disease results in early death, then it cannot be passed on.
Genetics
scientific study of heredity
Recessive allele
form of gene that is not expressed, lower case letters
Incomplete dominance
two different alleles for the same trait combines, neither allele is fully expressed
Genotype
genetic make-up of an organism
Genes
sections of a chromosome that codes for a trait, "factors", two copies-one from each parent
Hybrid
organisms recieves different forms of a trait from each parent
Heterozygous
two alleles in a gene pair are different
Homozygous
two alleles in a gene pair are identical
Monohybrid
studying one trait at a time, 4 squares
Test cross
breeding organisms whose genotype is unknown with a homozygous recessive
Pedigree
chart that shows how a trait and the genes that control it are inherited in a family
Self-pollenation
pollen reaches stigma on same plant
Purebred
organism recieves the same traits from both parents, self-pollenation
Pleiotropy
single gene affects more than one trait, sickle cell
Trait
characteristic that can be passed on to offspring, in chromosomes
Cross-pollenation
pollen reaches stigma on different plant
What was Mendel's contribution to genetics?
He applied statistics to try to determine a method of inheritance
An example of how climate influences the expression of an allele
Goby fish (Japan)-change sex depending on social environment