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81 Cards in this Set

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Flowers contain how many whorls?
Four
Name the four parts of the plant
1. Sepal
2. Petal
3. Stamen
4. Pistil
Parts of the Stamen
1. Anther
2. Filament
Parts of the Pistil
1. Stigma
2. Style
3. Ovary
Complete Flowers are?
Flowers that contain ALL FOUR whorls
Perfect flowers are?
Flowers that contain both male and female structures
Monoecious means?
The housing of both sexual structures in one flower- Perfect flowers are monoecious.
Dioecious means?
The separate housing of male and female parts
Double Fertilization
2 sperms cells:

One will fuse with the egg to create a zygote

One will fuse with the polar nuclei to provide food
Advantages and Disavantages of Self Pollination
Adv: No partner needed, make seed on own

Dis: Limits genetic variability
Factors that promote Outcrossing
S gene- prevents self pollination
Physically separat parts
Dichogamous- parts mature at different times
Dioecious- parts on separate plants
Imperfect Flowers (parts on separate plants)
What controls plant flowering?
Prescence of absence of light

Quatity of light

Quality ofg light
Far-Red Light causes..
The rapid converstion back to red light
How do plants monitor the length of day?
The ratio of red light to far red light
Darkness causes what conversion?
The SLOW (like danica) conversion back to phytochrome red
If a plant is flashed with red light, then far red, then red, then far red, which one matters the most?
The last flash, far red.
Dormancy is?
The dehydration of the embryo, where development stops and the seed coat hardens
Adaptive Importance of Seeds
duration, cues to break dormancy
First step in germination
Imbibition- the reabsorption of molecules
Second step in eudioct germination
Shoot and Root meristems resume activity.

The root is first in whith the hypocotyl elongates and the radicle forms

The shoot is second in which the hypo and epicotly elongates. The shoot breaks ground and the first leaves unfurl
Annual Plant is?
a plant that grows, gerimates, produces seeds all in one year. They must regrow from seed each year.
Plant responses are controlled by?
hormones
Plants respond to stimulus by?
Cell division, cell elongation, cell differentiation
Auxin is produced mainly in?
Stem apical meristems, growing tip
Auxin aids in
cell elongation

the phototrophic response

stimulates furit production

promotos growth of adventitious roots

Auxin = good herbicide
Cytokinins aid in
"anti-aging hormone"

cause shoot bud development
Where are cytokinins produced?
Root apical meristems
Abscisic acid is?
a growth inhibitor

maintains seed dormancy
Gibberellin causes
growth promotion
Ethylene aids in
furit rippening

leaf abscission in the fall
Tropism is
the growth response of plants to evironmental stimuli
Phototropism is
the growth in response to light
Gravitropism is
the growth in response to gravity
Negative gravitropism causes
stems to grow up

Auxin response
Positive gravitropism causes
roots to grow down

amyloplast
Thigmotropism is
directed growth in response to touch

vine tendrils
wind-induced shortness
What are plant clocks called?
Bio Rhythms

circadian rythms
Turgor movement is?
movement based on the reversible changes in cell turgor pressure

venus fly trap
mimosa
Cancer cells are described
having more births than deaths
Prokaryotic Chromosome
is a single, circular molecule of DNA that has a nucleoid region
Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Linear molecule of DNA

after replication each chromosomes consist of two joined chromatids
How long is DNA in a human cell
2 m
How is DNA compacted?
It is wrapped around Histone Proteins

146 pairs to 8 Histones
A nucleosome consists of
DNA + 8 histone proteins + histone clamp
4 Nucleosomes consist of how many histone proteins?
36 :)
Four events that occur before and during cell division
1. A signal to reproduce must be received

2. Replication of DNa and vital cell components must occur

3. DNA must be distributed to the new cells

4. The cell membrane of cell must separate the two new cells "pinching off"
Eukaryotic cell division consists of?
Replication of DNA within the nucleus, pakaging and segregation of the replicated DNA into 2 nucleus

The division of the cytoplasm
Two Major Phases of the Cell Cycle
Interphase

Mitosis
Results of Mitosis
Two identical daughter cells
Results of Meiosis
produces gametes for sexual reproduction

daughter cells not identical
S Phase
Synthesis: phase of DNA replication
Spindle is
a railroad track along which the chromosomes move; made of microtubules
Centrosome is
attachment point for spindle
Kintechores are
develop around centromeres; sites where microtubules attached to chromatids
Phases of Mitosis
Prophase
Prometaphase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

Duh...
Prophase is
The first stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes condense, sprindles form around the nucleus, and the kinetochores develop around the centromere
Prometaphase is
The second stage in mitosis in which the nuclear envelope breaks down, the spindles invade the nuclear region and the spindle fibers attach to the kinetochores
Metaphase is
The third stage in mitsosis in which the chromosomes line up on the equatorial plate and the cohesins between the chromatids break down
Anaphase is the
Fourth stage in mitosis in which the chromatids separate and move toward opposit poles
Telophase
Is the 5th and final stage in which the chromosomes arrive at the poles, the nuclear envelope reforms and the spindles break down
Cytokinesis is the
division of the cytoplasm

simultaneous with telophase
Cyclin-Dependent kinase functions how on its own?
it doesnt, its dependent
What is cylcin dependent kinase depend on
cyclin:)
When cyclin is bound to cdk, it can?
phosphorylate different target proteints
What is the functions of cyclin cdk complexes?
checkpoints during the cell cycle
Why would a cell want to prevent passage to the next stage?
It is damaged in some way
What can block cdk?
Tumor supressors
How are the cyclin cdk controls in cancer cells?
The cycle is disrupted, it is the overproduction of cyclin D
What is P53?
A tumor suppressor which aids in the production of P21
Cells can be stimulated to divide by
growth factors
Name the important growth factors
Platelet derived growth factor, interleukins, and erythropoetin
Asexual reproduction is
the generation of a new individual by mitosis in which the daughter cell is a clone
Zygote
the fusion of egg and sperm gametes
Somatic cells are
body cells
Chromosomes that contain information about the same trait but are not identical genetically are
Homologous Chromosomes
Haploid means (in relation to homologous chromosomes)
the cells contain just 1 homolog
Diploid means (in relation to homologous chromosomes)
the cell contains both homologs
Describe haplonic organisms
haploid is the predominant life cycle

protists, fungi

zygote undergoes meisosis to produce haploid cells

spores form new organisms by mitosis
Describe Alternation of Generation
Include both 1n and 2n

meoisis poroduces spores which divide mitotically to produce gametophytes
Describe diplontic organisms
gametes are the only haploid cells
Karyotype is
a picture of the chromosomes based on size, number and shape

lyses cells in metaphase