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30 Cards in this Set

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Cytoplasm
The material within the cell, minus the nucleus
Nucleoid
Where DNA in prokaryotic cells is stores
Centriole
Forms mitotic spindle fibers which separate chromosomes during cell division
Chromatic
DNA and proteins that make up eukaryotic chromosomes
Plastid
Organelle for photosynthesis and storage
Nucleolus
Dense mass of RNA/protein that assemble into ribosomes
Plasmodesmata
Plants cells have small channels that cross cell walls and connect cytoplasm
Three parts of the cell theory
1. All living things are composed of cells
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living systems
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells
What implications does the surface area/volume ratio have for the cell in terms of size?
As a cell size increases, colume increases more rapidly than its surface area. The larger the cell, the longer it takes for substances to diffuse from plama membrane to the center of the cell. It's small for practical reasons such as communication.
Characteristics of eukaryotic cells
1. Complex, bigger
2. They have a nucleus
3. Organelles bound by a membrane - endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, mitochondria
4. Nucleolus (ribosomal subunits assembled)
Characteristics of prokaryotic cells
1. No nucleus
2. Smaller and simpler
3. Organelles without membrane
4. DNA in nucleoid region
Examples of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
E - protists, fungi, plants, and animals
P - bacteria
Whar are organelles that plant cells contain that are not found in animal cells? What are their functions?
Chloroplasts - transform sunlight energy into sugar
Cell wall - protect and supports cell
Large central vacuole - secretory, excretory, and storage functions
Describe the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane
Phospholipid bilayer plus embedded proteins
What are the different parts of the nucleus and what are their functions?
Nuclear envelope - double membrane that surrounds nucleus
Nucleolus - dense mass of RNA/protein that assemble into ribosomes
Chromosomes - found by condensation of chromatin, contain DNA
Endoplasmic reticulum
Move material throughout cell
Rough - site of protein synthesis
Smooth - site of lipid synthesis
Golgi body
Completes protein assembly, "packages" them for shipment through cell
Mitochondria
1. Food is broken down (oxidized) and energy captures in form of ATP
2. Divide on their own and have their own DNA
Cytoskeleton
Give cell shape, organization, and ability to move
Ribosome
Carries out protein synthesis
Lysosome
Introcellular digestion of cell/cell parts
Peroxisomes
Contain enzymes that break down fatty acids/amino acids
Differences between cilia and flagella
Flagella are longer and fewer
Cilia are smaller and cover more of cell exterior
Explain the 9 + 2 arrangement
Circle of 9 microtuble paris surrounding two central microtubles
Similarities between chromoplasts and amyloplasts
Both are plastids
Differences between chromoplasts and amyloplasts
Chromoplasts transform sunlight energy into sugar
Amyloplasts store starch
3 types of cell junctions and describe each one
Tight - link cells of tissues to make them water-tight
Adhering - join cells in tissues that are subject to stretching
Gap- link cytoplasm of neighboring cells
What is meant by the saying that the cell membrane is "selectively permeable?"
Only some things get in, and only somet hings get out
Describe how phospholipid molecules are oriented in the formation of the lipid bilaryer that is the cell membrane
Hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of the phospholipid. They are arranged tail to tail. The head is hydrophilic, which means that it likes water. The tail is hydrophobic which means that it doesn't like water. The heads face the water.
Endosymbiont theory
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are belieced to one be prokaryotic cells that were incorporated into eukaryotic cell
-Each of these two organelles have their own DNA and their own lipid bilayer which is evidence that they were once prokaryotic cells