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219 Cards in this Set

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What is the simplest collection of matter that can live?
Cells
-pass visible light through a specimen
-magnify cellular structures with lenses
Light Microscopes
What is the measurement used in microscopy?
micrometer
-focus a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surcace
electron microscopes
provides for detailed study of the surface of a specimen
scanning electron microscope
provides for detailed study of the internal ultrastructure of cells
transmission electron microscope
takes cells apart & separates the major organelles from one another
cell fractionation
used to fractionate cells into their component parts
the centrifuge
when do cell parts separate?
less dense cell parts will separate from more dense cell parts
have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions
eukaryotic cells
several basic features that all cells have in common
-pasma membrane
-cytosol (a semifluid substance)
-organelles
-chromosomes & ribosomoes
site of protein synthesis
chromosomes & ribosomes
-do not contain a true nucleus
-no nuclear envelope
-dna located in nucleoid
-have a cell wall
prokaryotic cells
-membranous nuclear envelope
-generally quite a bit bigger
-have organelles surrounded by membranes
eukaryotic cells
have a higher surface to volume ratio which facilitates the exchange of materials into and out of the cell.
smaller cells
-functions as a selective barrier
-allows sufficient passage of nutrients & waste
plasma membrane
-phospholipid bilayer
-cholesterol
-proteins
major components of the plasma membrane
-cell walls
-chloroplast
-central vacuole
things that plants have
eukaryotic cell's genetic instructions are housed in the
nucleus
genetic instructions for which type of cell are housed in the nucleus?
eukaryotic cells
the nucleus contains most of the genes in which type of cell?
eukaryotic
what contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell?
nucleus
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA
genes
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents fromt the cytoplasm
nuclear envelope
particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein
Ribosomes
site of protein synthesis
ribosomes
build proteins in 2 cytoplasmic locates
ribosomes
2 cytoplasmic locates in which ribosomes build proteins
-free ribosomes
-bound ribosomes
found floating freely in the cytosol
free ribosomes
found attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum
bound ribosomes
-free ribosomes
-bound ribosomes
proteins synthesize on
remain in the cell
free ribosomes
destined to exit the cell
bound ribosomes
various structures in the endomembrane system are related through
-direct physical continuity
-transfer of membrane segments known as vesicles
a sac made of membrane insidee of a cell
vesicle
the endomembrane system includes
the endoplasmic reticulum
accounts for more than 1/2 the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells
endoplasmic reticulum
continuous with the nuclear envelope
the endoplasmic reticulum membrane (er)
2 distinct regions of er
-rough er
-smooth er
-contains ribosomes
-produces proteins & membranes (which are distributed by transport vesicles)
rough er
lacks ribosomes
smooth er
-synthesizes lipids
-metabolizes carbohydrates
-detoxifies poison
functions of smooth er
broken down in the cells of the liver
glycogen
shipping & receiving center
golgi apparatus
consists of flattened memranous sacs called cisternae
golgi apparatus
side facing the nucleus
"cis" side
side facing the plasma membrane
"trans" side
receives many of the transport vesicles provided in the rough er
golgi apparatus
-modification of the products of the rough er
-manufacture of certain macromolecules
functions of the golgi apparatus
side facing the nucleus
"cis" side
side facing the plasma membrane
"trans" side
receives many of the transport vesicles provided in the rough er
golgi apparatus
-modification of the products of the rough er
-manufacture of certain macromolecules
functions of the golgi apparatus
-moves from er to golgi
-coalesces with "cis" side of golgi
-always go to the cis side
-moves from the cis to the trans side
-membranes coalesce each time
-forms & exits golgi
-fuses wtih plasma membrane
-doesn't pick up 2 membranes-sheds one than picks up another.
vesicle proteins within the endomembrane system
3 methods of moving substances in or out of the cell
exocytosis & endocytosis
materials move out of the cell
exocytosis
a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest all kinds of macromolecules
lysosome
-carry out intracellular digestion
-autophage
-apoptosis
3 processes of lysosome
involves phagocytosis & lysosomes fuse with food vacuole.
intracellular digestion
paramecium: unicellular organism that:
carries out intracellular digestion
the cellular uptake of macromolecules & particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance
endocytosis
a type of endocytosis involving large particulate substances
phagocytosis
macromolecules or substances form vacuoles once inside the cell
endocytosis
cytoplasmic extension used for feeding in some cells
psuedopodia
food vacuoles are formed by
phagocytosis
lysosomes break down damaged organelles within a cell recycles organic molecules
autophage
the changes that occur within a cell as it undergoes progammed cell death
apoptosis
genetically programmed to break open at a specific time
lysosomes
are formed by phagocytosis
food vacuoles
pump excess water out of protist cells
contractile vacuolles
found in plant cells & hold reserves of importnt organic compounds and water
central vacuoles
a complex & dynamic player in the cell's compartmental organization
the endomembrane system
a complex & dynamic player in the cell's compartmental organization
the endomembrane system
-food
-contracile
-central
types of vacuoles
change energy from 1 form to anotehr
mitochondria & chloroplasts
-sites of cellular respiration
mitochondria
glucose molecule is broken down to release energy
mitochonria
found in almost all plant & animal cells
mitochondria
smootther outer & inner folded into cristae
mitochondria has 2 membranes
capture of light energy
choloroplasts
-contail chlorophyll
-site of photsynthesis
chloroplsts
process in which light energy is converted to the chemical energy in lucose
photosynthesis
found in leaves & other green organs of plants & in algae
chloroplasts
-thylakoids
-stroma
parts of chloroplast structure
membranous sacs
thylakoids
internal fluid
stroma
a network of fibers extneding throughout the cytoplasm
the cytoskeleton
support motility & regulation
roles of the cytoskeleton
gives mechanical support to the cell
cytoskeleton
involved in cell motility which utilizes motion proteins
microtubules
hollow tubes
microtubules
shape the cell
microtubules
guide movement of organelles
microtubules
help separate the chromosome copies in dividin cells
microtubules
contain specialized arrangements of microtubules
cilia & flagella
locomotor appendages of some cells
cilia & flagella
beating pattern
flagella
back & forth motion
ciliary motion
flagella & ciliary motion
microtubules
share a common ultrastructure "9+2" arrangement of microtubules
cilia & flagella
9 pairs make a circle & 2 singles are in the middle
9+2 arrangement of microtubules
built from molecules of the protein actin
microfilaments
involved in amoeboid movement & involves the contraction of actin & myosin filaments
microfilaments
another form of locomotion by microfilaments
cytoplasmic streaming
exhibits selective permeability & allows some substances to cross it more easily than others
plasma membrane
states that a membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of various proteins embedded in it
fluid mosaic model of membrane structure
can move iwthin the bilayer
phospholipids
flip flop 1 time per month
lateral movement
can drift within the bilayer
proteins
-unsaturated hydrocarbon tails (with kinks)
-saturated hydrocarbon tails (more fluid)
phospholipids may have
unsaturated hydrocarbon tails
with kinks
saturated hydrocarbon tails
more fluid
affects the fluidity of the plasma membrane
the type of hydrocarbon tails in phospholipids
weged between phospholipid molecules in the plasma memrane of animals
cholesterol
molecule with 4 interlockig rings (make the membrane less fluid)
cholesterol
a collage of diferent proteins embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer
membrane proteins
penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer
integral proteins
appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane
peripheral proteins
provide a method of moving a particular solute from one side of the plasma membrane to another
transport proteins
-channel
-carrier
types of transport proteins
may provide a hydrophillic channel across the mebrane that is selective for a particular solute
channel proteins
move a solute across when the protein changes shape
carrier proteins
a cell's ability to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another
cell-cell recognition
-sorting of cells into tissues and organs in an animal embryo
-rejection of foreign cells by the immunesystem
importance of cell-cell recognition
interaction with the surface molecules of other cells
cell-cell recognition
interact with the surface molecule of other cells, facilitating cell-cell recognition
glycoproteins & glycolipids
a cell must exchange materials with its surroundings
a process controlled by the plasma membrane.
lipid soluble and can pass through the membrane rapidly
hyrdrophobic molecules
do not cross the membrane rapidly
polar molecules
allow passage of hydrophic substance across the membrane
transport proteins
molecules move due to
thermal energy
diffusion of a substance across a mebrane with no energy investment
passive transport
the tendency for molecules of any substance to spread out evenly into the available space
diffusion
there's net diffusion (one side gaining) until
equilibrium (both sides equal) then there's transfer but no side has more than the other at any given time
net diffusion
one side gains
the movement of substances from an area of higher concentration of that substance to an area of lower concentration
diffusion
substances diffuse
down their concentration gradient
the difference in concentration of a substance from 1 area to another
concentration gradient
membane is permeable to
water not solutes
water moves from an area of higher concentration of water to an area of lower concentration of water
osmosis
water molecules move from an are of
lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration (this is backwards in diffusion)
the ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
-has a reat impact on cells without walls
tonicity
ideally the molarity
of the solution outside the cell & inside the cell is the same
if a solution is isotonic
the concentration of solutes outside the cell is the same as it is inside the cell
in comparing 2 solutions referrin to the one with a greater solute concentration
hypertonic
if the solution outside the cell is hypertonic then
the cell will lose water
in comparing 2 solutios- referring to the one with a lower solute concentration
hypotonic
if the solution outside the cell is hypotonic to the cell
the cell will gain water
an animal cell (hypotonic solution)
lysed (water goes in)
water comes in & out
isotonic (normal)
water comes out
shriveled (hypertonic)
organisms without rigid cell walls living in hypertonic or hypotonic environments
must have special adaptations for osmoregulation (has to e able to regulate water flow)
how organisms regulate solute concentrations & balance the gain & loss of water
osmoregulation
name the osmoregulatory device in paramecium
contractile vacuole
help maintain water balance
cell walls
if a plant cell is turgid
it is in a hypotonic envionment it is very firm a healthy state in most plants
if a plant cell is flaccid (limp)
it is in an isotonic environment
if a plant cell is in a hypertonic solution
the cell will lose water to its surroundings & shrink
water will diffuse
out of the cytosol & large central auole
as the plant cell contents shrviels
its plasma membrane pulls away from the wall
when the plasma membrane pulls away from the wall
plasmolysis
if something wilts
plasmolysis has occurred
water comes in when
turgid (normal
water coes in & out when
flaccid
water comes out when
plasmolyzed
can predict the direction in which water will flow
water potential
water potential is governed by
solute concentration & applied pressure
has to do with cell wall
applied pressure
gives scientists a numberical value
water potential
pure water has the water potential & molarity
zero
adding solutes
lowers the water potential
if the water potential of pure water is zero adding solutes
makes the water potential negative
water moves
from an area of high water potential to an area of lower water potential
diffusion/osmois & facilitated diffusion
2 types of passive transport
facilitated diffusion
usually faster than diffusion
facilitated diffusion
no energy & with a concentration gradient
facilitated
to help-move faster
speed the movement of molecules across the plasma membrane
transport proteins
specific for the solute & specific binding sites
transport proteins
provide corridors that allow a specific molecule or ion to cross the membrane
channel proteins
undergo a subtle change in shape that translocates the solute binding site across the mebrane
carrier proteins
uses energy to move solutes against their gradients
active transport
if you go up a tree
it takes action (kinetic energy)
if you're on limb & step off
it's passive (doesn't take any energy)
enables a cell to maintain internal concentrations of small molecules that differ from concentrations in its environment
active transport
if it requires energy it's in the form of
atp
an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
carrier proteins
a certain concentration of sodium & potassium ions
all cells must maintain
a higher concentration outside the plasma membrane
sodium
a higher concentration inside the plasma membrane than outside
potassium
for every 3 pumped out of the cell there has to be 2 pumped into the cell
for every 3 cytoplasmic sodium pumped out of the cell there has to be 2 extracellular potassium ions pumped into the cell
one type of active transport system
sodium potassium pump
higher to lower
passive transport
if something goes across the bilayer from higher to lower
diffusion
transport & carrier proteins
facilitate diffusion
lower to higher concentration
active transport
more of 1 type of chemical on one side than on another
chemical gradient
the voltage difference across a membrane
membrane potential
the inside of the cell
is negative compared to the outside
two forces drive
the diffusion of ions across a membrane
caused by the concentration electrical gradient of ions across a membrane
electrochemical gradient
examples of elctrochemical gradient mechanisms
-sodium-potassium pump
-prton pump
pumps protons or hydrogen ions
proton pump
2 examples of electrochemical gradient mechanisms
both are examples of active transport
bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by
exocytosis & endocytosis
exo
out
endo
in
transport vesicles migrate to teh plasma membrane, fuse with it, & release their contents.
exocytosis
the cell takes in macromolecules by formng new vesicles from the plasma membrane
endocytosis
phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor
3 types of endocytosis
large macromolecules are taken in
phagocytosis
cell drinking (particles of fluid are taken in)
pinocytosis
cell mediated
receptor
receptors on outside
receptor endocytosis
80% genetics
metabolism
the totality of an organisms chemical reactions
metabolism
the transformation of one type of matter to another type of matter
law of thermodynamics
the transformation of oe type of energy to another type of energy
laws of thermodynamics
has many steps that are each catalyzed by a specific enzyme
metabolic pathway