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143 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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First Law of Thermodynamics
matter is never created or destroyed, just changing form(ie potential energy versus kinetic energy)
energy fundamentals
Second Law of Thermodynamics(Entropy)
Energy goes from a state of order to a state of disorder(a cell or atomic nucleus loses electrons or neutrons, heat radiates off of an organism)
energy fundamentals
Producers
algae, bacteria, kelp, roses, redwoods
the sun gives its energy to________

energy in the environment
primary consumers(herbivores)
sea urchins, crickets, deer, iguanas
the producers gives its energy to_________

energy in the environment
secondary or higher level carnivores(eat meat) and omnivores(eat everything)
bear, fox
primary consumers gives its energy to________

energy in the environment
decomposers
when producers and consumers die, their bodies are reduced to biologically viable compuds by the "scavenging" activity of other organisms called __________
usually bacteria and fungi
1.ecosystem
2.community
3.population
4.organism
5.organ system
6.organ
7.tissue(such as heart muscle tissue)
8.cell(such as heart muscle cell)
9.molecule(such as DNA)
10.Atom(such as an oxygen atom)
the levels of organization in order from first to last are
there are 10 of them
1.pro
2.prokaryotic
1.before
2.the first cells, lacking a membrane enclose the nucleus and other organelles.
1.eu
2.eukaryote
1.true
2.cell type with membrane nucleus and other organelles
1.aqua
2.aqueous
1.water
2.a type of solution in which water is the solvent.
1.co
2.valent
3.covalent bond
1.together
2.strength
3.an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons.
1.eco
2.ecosystem
1.house
2.all the organisms in a particular area and their physical environment
1.iso
2.isotope
3.isomer
1.equal
2.an element having the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons
3.molecules with similar formulas but different structures.
1.di
2.disaccharide
1.two
2.two monosaccharides joined together
1.glyco
2.glycogen
1.sweet
2.a polysaccharide sugar used to store energy in animals
1.hydro
2.lyse
3.hydrolysis
1.water
2.break
3.breaking chemical bonds by adding water
1.meros
2.polymer
1.part
2.a chain made from smaller organic molecules
1.mono
2.sacchar
3.monosaccharide
1.single
2.sugar
3.simplest type of sugar
1.philic
2.hydrophilic
1.loving
2.water loving property of a molecule
1.phobos
2.hydrophobic
1.fearing
2.water hating property of a molecule
1.poly
2.polysaccharide
1.many
2.many monosaccharides joined together
1.chloro
2.chloroplast
1.green
2.the organelle of photosynthesis
1.chromo
2.chromosome
1.color
2.a thread like, gene carrying structure formed from chromatin
1.cili
2.cilium
1.hair
2.a short, hair like cellular appendage with a microtubule core
1.cyto
2.cytoplasm
1.cell
2.cell region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
1.desma
2.plasmodesmata
1.a band or bond
2.an open channel in a plant cell wall
1.endo
2.endocytosis
1.inner
2.the movement of materials into a cell
1.exo
2.exocytosis
1.outer
2.the movement of materials out of a cell
1.extra
2.extracellular
1.outside
2.the substance around animal cells
1.flagell
2.flagellum
1.whip
2.a long, whip like cellular appendage that moves cells
prokaryotic
a cell lacking membrane enclosed nucleus and other organelles
1.micro
2.microfilament
1.small
2.the smallest part of the cytoskeleton, made of actin
1.plasm
2.cytoplasm
1.molded
2.the thin outer membrane of a cell
1.reticul
2.endoplasmic reticulum
1.network
2.membranous network where proteins are produced in the cytoplasm
1.vacu
2.vacuole
1.empty
2.sac that buds from the ER, golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane.
1.kinet
2.kinetic
1.move
2.type of energy, it is the energy of motion
1.hyper
2.hypertonic
1.exceeding
2.in comparing two solutions, referring to the one with the greater concentration of solutes
1.hypo
2.hypotonic
1.lower
2.in comparing two solutions, referring to the one with the lower concentration of solutes
1.iso
2.isotonic
1.same
2.solutions with equal concentrations of solutes
1.phago
2.phagocytosis
1.eat
2.cell eating
1.pino
2.pinocytosis
1.drink
2.cell drinking
1.tonus
2.isotonic
1.tension
2.solutions with equal concentrations of solutes
atomic number
the _________ is the number of protons
atomic mass
the __________ or weight is equal to the number of protons plus the number of electrons
protons, electrons, neutrons
subatomic particles contain _________, _________, and _________
(+),(-),(neutral)
carbon
the elements of life

"C"
hydrogen
the elements of life

"H"
oxygen
the elements of life

"O"
phosphorus
the elemenents of life

"P"
potassium
the elements of life

"K"
iodine
the elements of life

"I"
nitrogen
the elements of life

"N"
sulfur
the elements of life

"S"
calcium
the elements of life

"Ca"
iron
the elements of life

"Fe"
magnesium
the elements of life

"Mg"
sodium
the elements of life

"Na"
chlorine
the elements of life

"Cl"
3 main bonds
ionic, covalent, hydrogen
ionic bond
transfer of electrons
covalent bonds
sharing of electrons
hydrogen bond
weak bond between a polar bonded hydrogen and a polar bonded oxygen or nitrogen.
properties of water
cohesion and adhesion
cohesion
holds water together within a vessel
adhesion
water sticks to vessel wall resisting gravity
electrolytes
substances that ionize in water

includes acids, bases, and salts
Macromolecules
-carbohydrates
-lipids
-proteins
-nucleic acids
disaccharides
2 sugars
polysaccharides
3 or more sugars
starch
storage molecules in plants
glycogen
storage of glucose in animals
cellulose
polymer of glucose in plants
chitin
makes up exoskeleton in insects
1.specialized proteins
2.catalyst
3.catalyst
4.ase

Sucrase
Lactose
1.Enzymes are _________
2.Enzymes are also _________
3._________ increase the rates of chemical reactions
4.Many enzymes names have ______ endings

Sucrose----->__________ (glucose + frutose)
Lactose----->__________(glucose + galactose)
the 3 principles of cell theory
-the cell is the basic unit of life
-all cells come from pre-existing cells(mitosis,meiosis,fertilization)
-All organisms are made of one or more cells
prokaryotic cells
-lack a nucleus
-smaller then counterpart cell
-usually bacteria, cyanobacteria
eukaryotic cells
-have a nucleus
-larger then counterpart cell
-typical in plant and animal cells
nucleus and the cell membrane
the cytoplasm is the entire region between the _______ and the ________.
the major groups of living organisms
-domain bacteria
-domain archaea
-domain eukarya
plant
elodea is a ________ cell
animal cells
-lack a chloroplast(not capable of photoshynthesis)
-lack a cell wall
-have centrioles
-have many small vacuoles
type of cell
plant cells
-have chloroplast(photosynthetic)
-have a cellulose cell wall
-lack centrioles
-have a large vacuole
type of cell
phospholipids and proteins
the cell membrane is made up of _______ and _______.
chromotin
the thread like DNA in the nucleus is called the _______.
chromosomes
the "worms" in the nucleus are called _________.
in the nucleus
where would you find chromosomes in the cell?
ribosomes
the site of protein synthesis
Rough ER
has ribosomes
Smooth ER
no ribosomes
first blank: rough

second blank: smooth
_______ ER has protein syntesis occur on it and ________ does not.
Chloroplast and Mitochondria
-semi autonomous organelles
-both have double membranes
-both have their own DNA
-both make some of their own proteins
cilia and flagella
________ and __________ are composed of microtubules.
-89 degrees celcius or -129 degrees farenheit
the coldest temperature recorded on earch is _______ on 21 july 1983 at the russian research station on the antarctic ice cap
58 degrees celcius or 136.4 degrees farenheit
the hottest temperature recored on earch is _______ in El Aziza, Libya in 1922.
57 degrees celcius or 134.6 degrees farenheit.
death valley record high is ______.
modes of heat loss and heat gain
-radiation
-conduction
-convection
-evaporation
heat produced + heat gained - heat lost
body temp= _______+_________-__________
ectothermy/ic
-mostly poikilothetmic(burrowing)
-low metabloic rate
-environment is the primary source of body temperature
-invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles
Endothermy/ic
-mostly homeothermic(stable)
-high metabolic rate
-metabolism is the primary source of body temperature
-birds and mammals
desert spiny lizard
the __________ maintains body temperature at about 93 degrees farenhiet
a lizard
whiptail lizard
the __________ mean temperature is between 104-106 degrees farenheit.
a lizard
kangaroo rat
-endothermic
-nocturnal
-burrowing
first blank: night

Second blank: cooler

third blank: food
Most mammals are active in the desert during the __________ because it is _________ and because of _________.
Torpor: Deer Mouse
the __________ is the most widely distributed mammal in North America.
cellulose
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.
dehydration synthesis
A chemical process in which a polymer forms as monomers are linked by the removal of water molecules. One molecule of water is removed for each pair of monomers linked.
denaturation
For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. __________ occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
enzyme
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
induced fit
The interaction between a substrate molecule and the active site of an enzyme, which changes shape slightly to embrace the substrate and catalyze the reaction.
lipid
One of a family of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that are insoluble in water.
nucleic acid
A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
nucleotide
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
peptide bond
The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction.
phospholipid
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
polypeptide chain
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
ribonucleic acid(RNA)
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
saturated
Pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains contain the maximum number of hydrogens and therefore have no double covalent bonds. Saturated fats and fatty acids solidify at room temperature.
steroids
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
unsaturated
Pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and therefore have one or more double covalent bonds. Unsaturated fats and fatty acids do not solidify at room temperature.
protein
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
monomer
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
anchoring junctions
Adhesive junctions that link cells together into tissues.
cell junctions
A structure that connects cells within a tissue to one another.
cilia
A short appendage that propels some protists through water and moves fluids across the surface of many tissue cells in animals. In common with eukaryotic flagella, it has a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules covered by the cell’s plasma membrane.
communicating junctions
A channel between adjacent tissue cells through which water and other small molecules pass freely.
crista
An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
cytoskeleton
A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.
cytosol
The semifluid medium of a cell’s cytoplasm.
endomembrane system
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
fluid mosaic
The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
golgi apparatus
An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
lysosome
A membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
mitochondrion
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
nuclear envelope
The membrane in eukaryotes that encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm.
nucleolus
A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes.
nucleus
(1) An atom’s central core, containing protons and neutrons. (2) The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. (3) A cluster of neurons.
plasma membrane
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell’s chemical composition.
tight junction
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells.
transmission electron microscope
A microscope that passes an electron beam through very thin sections, primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells.
transport proteins
A membrane protein that helps move substances across a cell membrane.
transport vesicle
A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
cell wall
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists; protects the cell and helps maintain its shape.