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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a root that grows from an unexpected region of the plant, such as from a stem or leaf
adventitious roots
the distinct layers of xylem that result from the patterns of spring and summer growth in a tree
annual growth rings
the outer section of a woody stem which provides protection for the stem and helps transport food throughout the plant
the upward movement of liquids through very narrow tubes
the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration toward one of lower concentration by random molecular motion; also known as passive transport
onw-way diffusion (generally of water) through a semipermeable membrane
a bundle of xylem and phloem tubes in a herbaceous stem
fibrovascular bundles
a method of vegetative propagation that involves transplanting living tissue from one plant to another
older, darker xylem tissue that forms the core of a tree's trunk; serves as support for the stem but cannot conduct water because of the accumulation of resins and oils
relatively young xylem tissue in a stem that conducts sap and forms the lighter outer part of the wood
the section of a twig between nodes
a mark at a node of a twig that show where a leaf stalk (petriole) was attached in a previous year
leaf scars
a small opening in the bark of a woody stem that allows air to enter the stem to provide a means of respiration
primary - the growth in length at the stem or root

secondary -the increase in diameter of the stem and roots of plants, made possible by cell division in the vascular cambrium
primary and secondary growth
the soft storage tissue at the center of roots and stems that consists of parenchyma cells
the tough outer covering of the stem of a monocot, consisting of thickened and strengthened epidermal cells
the cone-shaped protective structure covering a root tip
root cap
root cortex - the region of a root inside the epidermis that is used to store food

stele - the central cylinder of a root, containing xylem, phloem, and parenchyma cells
root cortex and stele
the upward flow of fluids through the xylem of roots and stems
sap stream
scion - in grafting, thee branch which is to be grafted onto another plant

stock - in grafting, the tree which receives the new stem
scion and stock
a food-containing tube of the phloem of plants
sieve tubes
taproots system - the primary root penetrates the soil with relatively little branching, remains larger than the secondary roots that branch off from it, and is often used to store food; characteristic of monocots

fleshy roots - an enlarged taproot used to store large quantities of food

fibrous roots - the primary root remains small and many slender secondary roots grow from it in all directions; characteristic of grasses and other momocots
taproots, fleshy roots, and fibrous roots
the large end bud of the twig that causes it to grow in length; also called apical bud
terminal buds and lateral buds
the growth respons of a plant to a physical stimulus
in botony, sap-conducting tissues tha serve as the "circulatory system" of a plant; xylem and phloem
vascular tissue
the process of using vegetative reproductive methods to start a new plant from a root, stem, or leaf
vegetative propagation
the strong, resilient inner section of a woody stem, composed of xylem tissue