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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Plant nutrition
The uptake of water, nutrients and minerals through their roots and the intake of carbon dioxide (through the stomata) through the leaves.
Varied in color
The use by green plants of energy in sunlight to carry out chemical reactions, such as the conversion of carbon dioxide into oxygen. Photosynthesis also produces the sugar that feed the plant.
Limiting Factor
The nutrient or condition in shortest supply usually referring to growth. Plants will grow until stopped by this limitation; for example, phosphorus is typically limiting in summer and temperature or light is limiting in fall or winter.
Wax cuticle
stomata and mesophyll cells
Air space
distribution of chloroplasts
vascular bundles (xylem and phloem)
Spongy mesophyll
Palisade mesophyll
Air pore and lower and upper epidermis
gaseous exchange
means taking a material into the body through the mouth
process the body uses to break down food into simple substances for energy, growth, and cell repair.
uptake of substances by a tissue, as of nutrients through the wall of the intestine.
to discharge from the body
The 32 adult teeth are:
8 incisors: used to cut food
4 canines: to tear food
8 premolars: used to grind and mash food
12 molars: chewing
Tooth decay
Tooth decay is caused by sugary foods and drinks. Saliva is normally slightly alkaline, but after a meal, bacteria in the mouth feed on any sugar present and turn it into acids. The acid eats into the teeth.
Proper care of teeth
Clean your teeth regularly, use dental floss, finish your meal with a rough vegetable and rinse your mouth with water. Dont hold sweets in your mouth and suck them for a long time.
Chewing is the process by which food is mashed and crushed by teeth. It is the first step of digestion, and enzymes (mucus, amylase) and saliva break down the food. After chewing, the food is swallowed and enters the oesaphagus and continues on to the stomach.
a ring of contraction moves slowly downwards, pushing the food in front of it.
Chemical Digestion
the significance of producing small soluble molecules.
Digestion in the alimentary canal
From the throat, food travels down a muscular tube in the chest called the oesophagus. At the end of the oesophagus, a muscular ring or valve called a sphincter allows food to enter the stomach and then squeezes shut to keep food or fluid from flowing back up into the oesophagus. The stomach muscles churn and mix the food with acids and enzymes, breaking it into much smaller, digestible pieces. Then, it moves to the small intestine. In the small intestine, the nutrients are and soluble food particles are carried to the liver in the blood from the small intestine.

From the small intestine, undigested food(and some water) travels to the large intestine. By the time the food reaches the large intestine, the work of absorbing nutrients is nearly finishes. The large intestine's main function is to remove water from the undigested matter and form solid waste that can be excreted. The large intestine is made up of these three parts: cecum, colon and rectum. The faeces are then removed through the anus.
Small Intestine
the region for the absorption of digested food
Tiny, hair-like projections or folds that line the small intestine. Villi increase the surface area of the small intestine and allow for better absorption of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients from digested food particles.
The loss of water into the atmosphere through the stomata of plants
The movement of sucrose and amino acids from the regions of production or of strorage to regions of utilisation in respiration or growth.
The Heart
It's the main organ in our circulatory system, it is situated in the chest between the lungs. The heart is hollow and its wall contains muscles, its job to pump blood round the body. When doing exercise, the heart beats faster, and more blood can be sent to the muscles. The arteries serving the muscles widen, but those serving less needful organs get narrower. Extra blood is diverted to the structures that need it most.
Most likely causes of a heart attack
Diet, smoking, and stress.
Blood vessels which cary blood away from the heart
Bring the blood back to the heart
the arteries and veins are connected by narrow, thin-walled capillaries.
consist of red blood cells, white blood cells and plasma.
Red Blood Cells
numerous, they do not have a nucleus, filled with haemoglobin(carries mainly oxygen; and carbon dioxide)
White Blood Cells
do not contain haemoglobin and they have a nucleus. They kill germs which get into the body, they defend us against disease. 2 types of white blood cells: phagocytes, lymph cells.
prevents fluid being lost from cuts and wounds; fluid blood changes to a solid.
How does the clotting take place
the damaging of the tissues triggers a chain reaction. In the last step of this process, the plasma protein fibrinogen is tuned into a meshwork of solid fibres calle fibrin.
Aerobic respiration
A chemical process used to make energy grom sugar(glucose), in the presence of oxygen into carbin dioxide and water.
Anaerobic Respiration
Sugar is broken down and energy released, oxygen isn't needed for this process to happen.
Gaseous Exchange
Respiratory gaseous exchange occurs between the interior of an organism and the environment. In all animals with a vascular system, in which the blood transports respiratory gases, there is a twofold gaseous exchange within actively respiring tissues and the respiratory organs. In humans, respiratory organs are the lungs, and there gaseous exchange takes place in the alveoli.
The effects of tabacco smoke and its major toxic components on the respiratory system
smoking is associated with lung cancer. A person who smokes can get chronic bronchitis, a disease that stops cilia cleaning our windpipe and bronchial tubes. Smokers get short of breath (emphysema), heart disease is common, raised blood pressure, increases the amount of fatty substances in the blood.