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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Aristole grouped plants and animals by..
structural similarities
The science of naming and classifying organisms
Linnaeus's original goal...
-what was it (a brief overview)
-what was the name of it
Tried to catalogue all kinds of organisms, so that all scientists would understand.
Called Binomial Nomenclature
Explain Binomial Nomenclature and What the Rules are
Linnaeus's system.
Used two latin words for each species.
Linnaeus's system of classification for plants and animals. Broad->specific
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Relation between different levels of the classification system
Kingdom- contains similar groups of phylum
Phylum-contains similar groups of classes
etc. etc.
6 kingdoms
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista.
Seven-level system can be split up even more...therefor how many taxonomic levels are ACTUALLY recognized?
Explain what Polynomials were and why they didnt work
A different way to classify animals and plants.
Genus+Descriptive Words=Name
Scientists would change the names b/c they would all use different descripitive words..therefor there was no one universal name
Also, the names given were often VERY long and akward
Compare and contrast Linnaeus system with common names
common names given to an organism may be different from country to country..therefore people use the scientific name
The word "Robin" in G.Brit. refers to a diff bird than the word "Robin" in N.Amer
Basic Unit on Linnaeus system
Refers to only ONE type of organism in a genus.
Biological Species Concept
-what is it
-who proposed it
Ernst Mayr
It is a group of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
What is an example of a reproductive barrier
Something that stops organisms from mating
-geographic barriers
-diff. mating seasons
-mutual attraction lacking
Is the Biological Species Concept 100% acturate? If not why?
Sometimes the indvs. of a different species interbreed and produce offspring called hybird.
An offspring that is a result of two species who were able to succesfully reproduce
Why does the Biological Species Concept Not Work in Some Sittuations
The B.S.C doesnt take into account organisms that reprdouce asexually
Organisms that produce a hybird are often/most likely... (two words)
closely related
Explain how the current system of taxonomy provides strong evidence of evolution
Linnaeus system was based on the fact that animals have different degrees of similarities. Darwin said that organisms that are similar descend from a common ancestor. Therefor, animals with alot of similarities (linnaeus) will evolve from the same ancestor (darwin) and most likely be in the same genus, or family, or class etc.
Although Linnaeus system provided evidence of evolution, it can be misleading. Why might this be
Not all traits that are similar (in look or function) are necessarily inherited from a common ancestor
All members of the kingdom Animalia are multicellular....
heterotrophs whose cells lack walls
Convergent Evolution
Organisms Evolve similar features independantly. Often b/c of their similar enviornments. Features that are results of convergent evolution are called analogous characters
Analogous Characters
A result of Convergent Evolution.
Things that so the same thing, but look different, and DO NOT have common anestor.
Ex: Bird and Bug wings
Homologous Characters
Look the Same, but do different things. Organisms with Homo. characters DO have common ancestors.
Forelimbs (arms) in humans and bats contain the same bones (look same) but do different things (one flies, one doesnt)
Analogous vs. Homologous
A: Used Same-look Diff-No Common Ancestor

H: Used Diff-Look Same-Common Ancestor
The evolutionary history of a species
How do Taxonomists determine phylogeny
By the overall similarity between the characteristics of different kinds of organisms
Derived Traits
Unique characteristics of a particular group of organisms
What are the 9 major phyla?
arthropada, annelida, cnidaria/ctenophora, chordata, echinodermata, nematoda, mollusca, platyhelminthes, porifera