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203 Cards in this Set

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What is another word for the system of the skin?
Integumentary system.
What are the two sections of the integumentary system?
The epidermis and the dermis.
What is the epidermis?
The thin outer layer. It has no blood vessels, the outer layer is composed of dead cells, the inner layer contains epithelial cells.
What do epithelial cells produce?
They produce keratin which is a structural protein that toughens the skin. (Keratin is also present in hair and nails.)
What is the dermis?
It is the deep layer and is mostly composed of connective tissue. It produces melanin.
What is melanin?
It's a pigment that absorbs ultraviolet rays from the sun.
What is the level beneath the dermis?
It is called the subcutaneous layer, which is filled with fatty deposits that help store heat.
What are scattered through the skin?
Sweat glands and hair follicles.
What are the two major functions of skin?
They are thermoregulation and protection.
What is thermoregulation?
It keeps the body at a constant temperature.
What occurs if the body temperature is high?
The blood supply increases and the capillaries dilate, allowing heat to be lost.
What happens if the body temperature is low?
The blood supply to the skin decreases and the capillaries close, conserving heat.
What are the different ways in which skin protects the body?
It is the physical barrier against infection and the skin's absorption of ultraviolet rays protect other layers of tissue from damage.
What does the skeletal system do?
It protects organs, offer structural support, and provides sites of muscle attachment.
How many types of bones are in the body?
Four. Long, flat, short, and irregular.
What is a long bone?
They are in the arms, legs, toes, and fingers. They curve slightly to absorb shock and have large ends.
What are flat bones?
The skull, ribs, hips, sternum, and scapula consist of broad plats of bone.
What are short bones?
They are in the kneecap, wrist, and ankle.
What are irregular bones?
They make up the vertebrae and parts of the face.
What is compact bone?
A dense material made up of structural units called Haversian system. Haversian systems are cylindrical sections.
What is at the center of each Haversian system?
A Haverisan canal, a tube that houses bundles of blood vessels and nerves.
What surrounds the canal?
Concentric rings of bony tissue, which contain osteoblasts that lay down the bony matrix.
What is spongy bone?
It is the inner portion of bone, which is less dense than compact bone. It does not contain Haversian systems.It consists of newtork of supporting elements called trabeculae.
What in the center of long bones?
Bone marrow, it is composed of fatty soft tissue and cells that produce red and white blood cells.
What is cartilage?
A dense connective tissue essential to the skeletal system. It is more flexible than bone and functions well in absorbing shock, lubricating joints, and providing support.
What happens as a baby that is interesting?
Most of the skeleton is cartilage, but later it is replaced by bone.
What are other connective tissue?
Tendons, which attach muscle to bone, and ligaments, which attach bones together at joints.
What does the axial skeleton consists of?
Inner supportive elements of the body, the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum.
What is the largest bone in the body?
The femur.
When joints are immovable they are called...
Sutures. (The skull)
Where are cartilagenous joints found?
Throughout the axial skeleton. (Vertebrae.) These joints absorb shock and are able to move slightly.
What are synovial jonints?
They are in the appendicular skeleton. They are strong and have free movement. They are lubricated by synovial fluid.
What does synovial fluid do?
It reduces friction between tendons, ligaments, muscles, and bones.
What is the muscular system responsible for?
It is responsible for converting chemical electrical impulses and chemical elements into mechanical movement.
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
Smooth, cardiac, and skeletal.
What is smooth muscle?
It is also called visceral muscle and it lines the walls of arteries and organs. It is called smooth because it lacks the striations of skeletal muscle. Involuntary muscle.
What is cardiac muscle?
It is found only in the contractile walls of the heart. This tissue is straited, but controlled by the autonomic nerve system.
What are intercalated discs?
They are electrical connections between cardiac muscle which relay impulses during a heartbeat.
What is the skeletal muscle responsible for?
Voluntary movement.
What is another word for "slow-twitch"?
Red Muscle
What is red muscle?
It is a skeletal muscle that contains many mitochondria to supply energy for movement.
What does the mitochondria do for the red muscle?
It gives it the red color and enable the muscle to work for extended periods without fatigue.
What type of muscle/fibers do you use for a long walk?
Slow-twitch fibers.
What do you use for a sprinting?
White or Fast-twitch fibers.
What is the difference between the white and red muscles?
The white muscles contract with more force but they fatigue more rapidly.
Many closely packed myofibrils make up what?
Fiber.
What are surrounding the filaments in the muscle?
Sarcoplasmic reticulum, which stores calcium ions, and T-tubules, which help to conduct nerve impluses.
What are sarcomeres?
Units of overlapping thin and thick filaments. Z-lines bind these units together.
Refer to page 66 for ???
Sliding Filament Model.
How do contractions of muscles begin?
Nerve impulses which tiggers the release of stored calcium ions.
What is fatigue?
The muscle's inability to sustain contraction.
What are the two factors that lead to fatigue?
The depletion of ATP stores and the buildup of lactic acid.
When is lactic acid produced?
When the muscle cells are starved of oxygen and begin to function anaerobically.
What does the circulatory system transport?
Vital nutrients, gases, wastes, chemical signals, and cells throughout the body. (By blood)
Is the human circulatory system closed or open?
It is a closed system, which means that blood travels through blood vessels that form a closed loop.
What is plasma?
It is the fluid part of blood and contains 92 percent of water. It contains inorganic salts, proteins, hormones, nutrients, waste products, fats, and gases. The plasma proteins function in clotting, staving off infection, and regulating blood pressure.
Almost half of the blood is made up of what two types of blood cells?
Red blood cells, which carry oxygen, and white blood cells, which fight infection.
What are platelets?
Cell fragments that function in blood clotting.
What do red blood cells produce?
Hemoglobin which is the oxygen-carrying protein.
What is another word for red blood cells?
Erythrocytes.
What is another word for white blood cells?
Leukocytes.
What does phagocytic regarding white blood cells mean?
They engulf invading microbes.
What are lymphocytes referring to white blood cells?
They produce antibodies that either latch on to invading cells and help disable them (B-cells) or directly attack and destroy foreign cells (T-cells).
Where are the white and red blood cells formed?
In bone marrow.
What are platelets?
They are fragments of cells that attach to fibrin at the site of the cut; the result is a blood clot, which seals up the injury.
Image of composition of human blood
Page 67
Blood travels through ________.
Vessels; called arteries and veins.
Where do arteries carry blood?
Away from the heart.
What is systolic pressure?
Maximum pressure attained during an arterial pulse.
What is diastolic pressure?
The lowest pressure attained during an arterial pulse.
Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called, _________ and _________.
Arterioles and capillaries.
What are capillaries?
The smallest vessels, and are about as thick as a single cell.
What is the interstitial fluid?
It is a medium which surrounds the cell which nutrients, gases, and other molecules in the blood diffuse through.
What do veins do?
They collect blood from tissues and carry it back to the heart.
How do veins prevent blood from traveling backwards?
Valves.
What happens in the pulmonary circuit?
Blood travels from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns to the left atrium.
What happens in the systemic circuit?
Blood travels from the left ventricle to the body and returns to the right atrium.
Image of the cardiac cycle.
Page 69.
Impulses from the SA node cause the _____ to contract and are reflected in the __ wave.
Atria, P.
Impulses from the AV node cause the _____ to contract.
Ventricles.
What does the T wave represent?
The time that the muscles are recovering from the contraction.
Defamation elements.
Defamation plaintiff must prove:
(1) Defamatory statement
(2) Of and concerning plaintiff
(3) Publication (1+ people)
(4) Damages (libel - gen.damages presumed; slander - pecuniary loss)
unless: slander per se - 1)Π’s business or profession 2)Π committed serious crime of moral turpitude 3)Π was an unchaste woman 4)Π has a loathsome disease (lepracy, venereal)

+ If "matter of public concern" ADD Fault and Falsity as follows:
IF PRIVATE FIGURE:
Fault - negligence sufficient.
Falsity - statement must be false.
IF PUBLIC FIGURE:
Fault - malice required.
Falsity - statement must be false.
What is blood pressure?
The force exerted by the heart on the walls of the vessels.
What do the coronary arteries supply?
They supply the heart with nutrients.
What is the lymphatic system? What important role does it play?
It is the link between the circulatory system and the immune system. It plays a critical role in the body's defenses by producing lymphocytes and transporting white blood cells.
More fluid leaves the blood vessels and enters the body tissue than reverse. What happens to the extra interstitial fluid?
Unless collected, the fluid would continue to build up in the tissues. Therefore one of the functions of the lymphatic system is to absorb the excess fluid. Tiny tubes called lymph vessels collect the interstitial fluid, which passes through the lymph nodes and eventually cycles back into the circulatory system.
The lymphatic system and the circulatory system.
page 70
What are the most common pathogens?
Bacteria, viruses, and protozoans.
Tuberculosis, syphilis, and leprosy are examples of what type of disease?
Bacterial.
How are viruses different from bacteria and protozoans?
They can't function on their own because they lack the mechanisms for respiration and protein synthesis that living cells process. Viruses are protein-coded genes. They can only reproduce by penetrating a cell and changing it into a virus factory.
Smallpox, herpes, measles, and AIDs are examples of what type of disease?
Viral.
What are antigens?
Foreign molecules in the body.
What are the two types of defense mechanisms to combat antigens?
Humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity.
What is humoral immunity?
It involves the production of antibodies, which are a diverse group of proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens.
What is a cell-mediated response?
A response that involves specialized cells to combat foreign cells.
What are macrophages?
Cells that recognize the prsense of an antigen, engulf it, and initiate the cell-mediated immune response.
Immunoglobulins are also known as ___?
Antibodies.
What are antibodies?
Y-shaped proteins that have two regions: variable regions, which act as very specific antigen-binding sites, and constant regions, which determine the method of antigen elimination.
Antibodies have four polypeptide chains, called light and heavy chains which do what?
They contain variations which lead to the tremendous diversity in antibody types.
What is the major cell type of the immune system?
Lymphocyte.
What are the three forms of T-cells?
Helper T-cell, which stimulate the activity of other cells, Killer T-cells, which destroy target cells directly, and suppressor T-cells, which decrease the activity of other B- and T-cells after infections are brought under control.
How does the immune system remember encountering the antigen?
By use of memory B- and T- cells, stored in the spleen. They are ready to react quickly.
How does the immune system distinguish between intruders and non-intruders?
The proteins that identify the body's own cells are called major histocompatibility markers. (MHC). These proteins are unique to each individual and occur in every cell.
What happens when the macrophages and B-cells find an intruder?
They sound an alarm, the macrophage engulf the antigen and displays pieces of of antigen's proteins on the surface. The B-cell binds to the antigen and becomes activated. It will start to digest the antigen and display its proteins.
How does the immune respond? (Cell-mediated response and humoral response)
A helper T-cell will bind to the macrophage which will eventually lead the T-cell to sign other T-cells to multiply. In the other response, the activated B-cell beings to clone itself and multiply.
What occurs when B-cells differentiate into plasma cells?
They produce large numbers of antibodies, and these guys will attract phagocytic cells to destroy the antigens or the antibodies will cause the antigens to clump together for easier removal.
Cell-Mediated Immune Response and Humoral Immune Response
Page 73
What is the role of the digestive system?
It is to convert material from food into nutrients that the body an use and to eliminate products that cannot be absorbed.
Where does digestion begin?
The mouth.
What does the incisors do?
They cut the food by their sharp edges.
What do the cuspids and bicuspids have?
They have one point or two point (cusps) that grasp and tear the food.
What do molars do?
They have flat surfaces which allow the food to be grind.
What are teeth mostly composed of?
Dentin, a calcium substance similar to bone.
What is a crown?
The part of the tooth that is exposed.
What is enamel?
The hardest substance in the body.
What is in the middle of the tooth?
Nerves and blood vessels.
What does the salivary glands secrete in the mouth, to do what?
Saliva, which increases moisture and begins to break down carbohydrates.
What is salivary amylase and what does it do?
It splits starch bonds and releases certain sugars of the carbohydrate.
Where does the food travel after the mouth?
It travels to the pharynx, aka throat.
What is the pharynx?
The passageway that channels food to the esophagus and air to the trachea.
What is peristalsis?
A word to that means food is forced down the stomach by muscular contractions of the esophageal wall.
What happens in the stomach?
Digestive enzymes and high concentrations of HCl begin to digest proteins in the food as well as break down the food into smaller and smaller particles. After a while, the food becomes a nutrient-rich acid broth called chyme.
Where is chyme released after being made?
It's released into the duodenum, upper part of the small intestine, where most of the breakdown of the macromolecules occur.
What are the two glands that secrete substances into the duodenum?
Pancreas and the liver.
What does the exocrine pancreas do that is different that the endocrine pancreas?
They secrete molecules via ducts into the duodenum, as oppose to the endocrine pancreas which secretes products directly into the bloodstream.
What does the exocrine pancreas deliver to the duodenum?
Powerful hydrolytic enzymes that break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. It also delivers a strongly alkaline bicarbonate solution, which neutralizes the highly acidic chyme.
What does the liver produce?
Bile.
What is bile?
Bile is a mixture that contains no digestive enzymes but does contain salts and lipids that aid in fat processing. Bile also had pigments, by-products of the liver's breakdown of red blood cells, that are removed from the body with the feces.
What does the gallbladder do?
It is a small sac that is attached to the liver that stores the bile until it is needed.
Food is broken down in the duodenum but where are the nutrients of the food absorbed?
In other parts of the small intestine, the jejunum and the ileum.
The lining of the lower small intestine has many folds and is covered with projections called ______?
Microvilli, which maximizes the surface area for the diffusion and active transport of molecules.
What is another word for large intestine?
Colon.
What is another word for colon?
Large intestine.
What happens in the large intestine?
Water is reabsorbed from the chyme.
What is the role of the respiratory system?
It is to transport gases between the cells of the body and the environment.
What is the chemical breakdown of air?
20% of oxygen, 80% of nitrogen.
What is the airflow from outside of the body to inside of the body?
The trachea to the lungs.
Where are the alveoli and what occurs there?
The lungs are made up of small passages that end in air sacs, (Alveoli) and this is where gas exchange occurs with the circulatory system.
Alveoli have extremely thick/thin walls? and are surrounds by a network of ________ capillaries.
Thin, and pulmonary capillaries.
What occurs with the oxygen and the carbon dioxide regarding the respiratory system?
The oxygen molecules diffuse through the thin walls into the blood while the carbon dioxide in the blood diffuses into the air of the lungs.
What happens after gas exchange?
The protein hemoglobin carries the oxygen in the blood, where it travels to the heart and the cells of the body.
What are the two functions of the urinary system?
To remove metabolic wastes from the body and to osmoregulate or balance the amounts of salts and water in the circulatory system.
What do the kidneys do?
Since blood enters the kidneys through the renal artery, the kidneys filter out waste products and water, forming a concentrated excretory fluid called urine. The filtered blood returns to the circulatory system through the renal vein.
What does the urinary system removal that is important?
Ammonia, a nitrogenous by-product of cell metabolism that is highly toxic to the cells of the body.
Since ammonia is dangerous what occurs in the human body that stops it from hurting us?
The liver converts ammonia to a soluble form called urea. The urea can travel in the body safely for longer periods than ammonia. The kidneys remove urea from the blood, where it becomes urine.
Structure of kidneys
Page 77
Two alpha chains and two beta chains of polypeptides make up the bulk of what molecule?
Hemoglobin molecule of red blood cells.
What is at the center of the hemoglobin molecule?
An iron molecule so that the oxygen molecule could bind for transport.
What is the path for urination in the kidneys?
The minor calyx leading to the major calyx, then to the renal calyx and the renal pelvis and ureter.
The kidney is made up of about one million functional units called ____.
Nephrons.
What are the three processes the nephrons perform in controlling the salt and water concentrations of the blood.
Filtration, secretion, and reabsorption.
Where does filtration occur and when?
In the cortex, when much of the blood plasma and many small molecules, such as amino acids, salts, and waste, are strained out of the blood.
Why is secretion needed and how is it performed?
To maintain pH and salt connections in the blood, the nephrons take out certain amounts of acids, bases, and ions and secrete them into the filtrate.
how is reabsorption regulated and what substances must return to the blood at their proper levels?
It is regulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secreted by the pituitary gland, and many substances such as sugars, nutrients, and amino acids must return to the blood at their proper levels.
Detailed view of activity at the nephron.
Page 78.
Steps of flow of filtrate.
1. Blood enters kidney and travels to the glomerules. The Bowman's capsule surrounds the glomerulus, a bulb-shaped. Much of the blood plasma and small molecules i nthe blood, such as amino acids, salts, and waste, filter through the thin walls of the capillaries to form a fluid called the filtrate. Large molecules, such as proteins and blood cells, remain in the blood.
2. The filtrate travels from the Bowman's capsule through the proximal convoluted tubule to the loop of Henle. During the descending journey, water diffuses out of the tubble through the permeable membrane, concentrating the filtrate.
3. The tubule ascending from the loop of Henle is impermeable to water but is permeable to salts. As the filtrate passes through this section, salt ions are pumped out of the filtrate, diluting the fluid.
4. The urine travels to the collecting duct, which is permeable to water but not salts. More water is reabsorbed, leaving a concentrated filtrate.
What is a glomerules?
A network of capillaries.
What does the nervous system enable the body to do?
It enables the body to receive and respond to stimuli from the environment.
What is the primary cell of the nervous system?
The neuron. Neurons process a stimulus and transmit it as an electric charge to other cells.
Review of anatomy and function of the neuron.
Page 79.
What are the three types of neurons?
Sensory neurons (afferent), interneurons, and motor neurons (efferent).
What do sensory neurons do (Afferent)?
They interpret stimuli from the environment.
What do interneurons do?
They relay information received.
What do motor neurons do (Efferent)?
They control muscular movement.
What does it mean when sometime is polarized?
The electric charge inside the cell differs from the charge outside of it.
For the sodium-potassium pump, what is pumped outside and inside of the neural membrane?
Na+ ions are pumped outside of the neural membrane, and K+ ions are pumped inside.
What is resting potential?
It occurs when the neuron is not firing.
How is information in the nervous system carried through?
Electrical signals.
How are the electrical signals sent among nerve cells?
As action potentials.
If there is a strong stimulus that occurs as an action potential what occurs?
The stronger stimulus does not increase the level or duration of the action potential, it only creates more frequent action potentials.
If the axon is wider what does that mean about the speed of the action potential?
The greater the speed of the action potential.
What are the two types of synapses?
Electric synapse (Gap junctions) and chemical synapses.
What are electric synapses or gap junctions?
They are protein channels that allow ions to flow freely from one cell to another.
What is a chemical synapse?
It is when a cell relays an impulse to another cell by converting the impulse into a chemical message via neurotransmitters.
What is a summation?
When many impulses come together to make the cell fire.
What are the two branches off of the human nervous system?
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
What does the central nervous system consist of?
The brain and spinal cord.
What are the three main parts of the brain?
The forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.
What are the different processes of the forebrain?
It controls memory and though, cerebral cortex, integrate spinal cord information, thalamus, and temperature, hypothalamus.
What does the midbrain do?
It relays impulses from the eyes and ears. It also contains the limbic system, which controls emotions.
Wat does the hindbrain do?
It controls movement and coordination (cerebellum) and maintains body homeostatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion (Medulla and pons).
What are the two branches off of the autonomic nervous system?
The sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
What does the peripheral nervous system consist of?
Sensory organs, motor neurons (efferent), and sensory neurons (afferent).
What are the two branches off of the motor pathway?
The voluntary (somatic) nervous system and the autonomic nervous systems.
What does the voluntary (somatic) nervous system consist of?
It controls the voluntary movements and reflexes.
What does the autonomic system divided?
It's divided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic.
What is the sympathetic divison?
It's responsible for the fight or flight response including increased heart rate, hormone release decreased digestion, and dilation of blood vessels to muscles.
What is the parasympatheic division in control of?
They control responses that converse energy, including decreased heart rate and increased digestion.
What is the endocrine system?
It is a system of internal communications, regulating the activities of various tissues of the body.
How is the endocrine system different from the nervous system?
Unlike the nervous system, which uses electrical impulses to trigger rapid response, the endocrine system relies on chemical signals to coordinate longer lasting activities such as growth, reproduction, tissue repair, and nutrient balance in the blood.
Different endocrine glands.
Page 85.
What do endocrine glands secrete directly into the bloodstream?
Hormones.
What are the three main types of hormones in the body?
Steroid hormones, polypeptide hormones, and amino acid derivatives.
What is the big difference between the steroid hormone compared to the polypeptide hormone and amino acid derivatives.
The steroid hormone are lipids and can travel easily through cell membranes to bind with interior cell receptors. The polypeptide hormone and the amino acid derivative do not actually enter the cell but bind to receptors on the cell surface.
What are secondary messengers?
They are substances that are activated by a hormone. After being activated by a hormone they activate enzymes which activate more enzymes, etc.This amplified effect of the hormone is called the cascading effect.
Where is the sperm produced?
In the testes.
What is the three-stage process in producing sperm called?
Spermatogenesis.
From the testes what is the road of which the sperm has to travel?
The epididymis, to the vas deferens, through the uretha, and finally out of the penis.
Where is the egg or ovum produced?
In the ovaries.
What are sex hormones called?
Androgens.
How are the tests stimulated to produced testosterone?
By LH (Luteinizing hormone) which is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
What else is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland?
FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone), which acts with testosterone to continuously produce sperm.
The menstrual cycle.
Page 87.