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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cuvier
brought about catastrophism
Lyell
found geologic evidence that the Earth is extremely ancient
Malthus
populations outgrow resources
Miller
first toobtain indirect evidence that organic molecules could have been formed on the early Earth
Ediacarren
peculiar organism shaped like a frond, disk, or blob, maybe what animals evolved from
stromatolite
fossilized mats of shallow-water, microbial communities (mainly cyanobacteria)

tacky gel secretions blocked out UV rays but trapped sdediments; new mats had to form over old ones
cycad
insects and air currents transfer pollen from "male" plants to "female" plants by way of pollen and seed-bearing cones
ginkgo
deciduous
gnetophyte
woody gymnosperm; unusual in having vessels in xylem, vine, or shrub
lignin
an organic compound synthesized and deposited in cell walls, important in stem development
lycophyte
seedless vascular plant with tree-sized ancestors of ancient swamp forests, require free water to complete life cycle; most have leaves, branching rhizome, vascularized roots and stems
progymnosperms
one of the earliest plants to produce seeds
rhizome
branching, short, mostly horizontal absorptive stems in whisk ferns
strobillus
spore-producing structure in lycophytes
bryophytes
nonvascular, independent gametophytes, and dependent sporophyte
dense, irregular connective tissue
in skin capsules around some organs, functions in support
loose connective tissue
under skin and most epithelia, functions in elasticity and diffusion
dense, regular connective tissue:
tendons, ligaments, functions in support, flexibility, and is a low-friction surfacefor joint movement
ecdysone
a steroid hormone thatt controls molting
second messenger
molecule within a cell that mediates a hormone signal by initiating the cellular response to it
macrophage
phagocyte; acts in nonspecific and specific responses; presents antigen to T cells and cleans up and helps repair tissue damage
neutrophil
fast-acting phagocyte; takes part in inflammation, not in sustained responses, most effective against bacteria
eosinophil
secretes enzymes that attack certain parasitic worms
basophil and mast cell
secrete histamine nd other substances that act on small blood vessels to produce inflammation; also contribute to allergies
IgM
first to be secreted during immune response
IgD
associated with IgM on virgin B cells
IgG
activate complement proteins and neutralize toxins
IgA
enter mucous-coated surfaces
IgE
triggers inflammation after attacks by parasitic worms and other pathogens
ruminant
a type of hoofed mammal having multiple stomach chambers in which cellulos is slowly broken down