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40 Cards in this Set

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What do enzymes help cells to do?
Degrade complex organic molecules simpler ones
Catabolic Pathways
Metabolic Pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules
fermentation
a catabolic process which is a partial degradation of sugars that occur without the use of oxygen
cellular respiration
breakdown of sugar with the use of oxygen
where does cellular respiration occur in eukaryotes
the mitochondria
What is the summary eqaution for respiration
c6h12o6 + 6o2 > 6co2 +6h2o + energy (ATP)
Oxidation- Reduction Reactions
transfer of one or more elctrons from one reactant to another
oxidation
the loss of electrons from one substance
reduction
the addition of electrons to another substance
reducing agent
the electron donor
oxidizing agaent
the electron acceptor
what effect does electronegativity have on atoms?
the more electronegative, the more energy is required to take the electron away from it
explain the conditions of organic molecules with alot of excess hydrogens
called "hilltop" molecules because they are a good source of fuel where energy is released and the electrons "fall" down an energy gradient when they are transferred to oxygen
Describe the flow of electrons regarding Activation Energy
The Activation Energy holds back the flow of electrons to a lower energy state
Glucose is broken down in a __________.
Series of steps
In the electron transport chain, each step is catalyzed by an ____________.
Enzyme
In the electron transport chain, ________ travel w/ ________.
electrons
protons (hydrogen atoms)
where do the hydrogens go?
they go to coenzyme NAD+
What does NAD+ stand for?
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
When the Hydrogen goes to the coenzyme what does the NAD+ become?
It becomes an electron electron acceptor and functions as the oxidizing agent during respiration
Explain the process of how NAD+ traps electrons from glucose
dehydrogenases remove a pair of hydrogen atoms from subtrate( a sugar) which oxidizes it dehydrogenase deliver 2 electrons and 1 proton to the coenzyme NAD+ and the other proton is released as H+ into the solution. When the NAD+ recieves 2 elect and 2 protons it becomes NADH. Each NADH is used as stored energy to make ATP.
Electron transport chain
used by respiration to break the fall of electrons to oxygen into sevral steps instead of 1 large reaction
what does the transport chain consist of?
consists of molecules built into the inner membrane of a mitochondria
What is the process of ceullar repiration with electrons traveling "downhill"
food>NADH>elecron transport chain>oxygen
WHat are the three stages of cellular respiration
glycolysis
citric acid cycle
oxidative phosphorylation" electron transport and chemiosmosis
What are the first two stages of cellular respiration and what do they do?
glycolysis and citric acid cycle
decompose glucose and other organic fuels.
glycolysis
breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
where does glycolysis occur?
the cytosol
citric acid cycle
complete breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to co2.
where doe the citric acid cycle occur
in the mitochondria matrix
What is the 3rd stage of cellular respiration and what does it do?
electron transport chain
accepts electrons from the breakdown products of the 1st two stages via NADH
energy at each step is stored to make _____
ATP
oxidative phosphorylation
modeo f ATP synthesis powered by redox reactions of the electron transport chain
electron transport and chemiosmosis occur where in the mito?
the inner membrane
together, the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis make up _________.
oxidative phosphorylation
substrate level phosphorylation
a mode of ATP synthesis where a smaller amount of ATP is formed by glycolysis and the ctric acid cycle
about how much ATP is made with oxidative phosphorylation
90 percent
about how much ATP is made with substrate level phosphorylation
10 percent
when does substrate level phosphorylation occur?
when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP
for each molecule of CO2 degraded by water how much ATP is formed
38