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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what does a single cirulation consist of?
-two chambers
-one atria
-one ventricle
-maintains the flow of blood
what does a double circulation consist of?
-4 chambers
-two atrias
-two ventricles
-blood returns to the heart tissue before oygenated blood leaves.
how does the eltrical impulse of the heart travel?
electrical impulse sent from the SA node towards the AV node these impulses are spread out across the atria which causes them to contract forcing blood through the atrioventricular valves into the ventricles. The impulse is held at the AV node before traveling through the septum via the budle of this to the apex of the heart. Impulse travels via the purkey fibres up the side of the ventricles causing them to contract and blood to be squeesed out of the pulmonary artery and out of the aorta. The heart then relaxes and the cycle starts again.
what is the cariac cycle?
The elctrical impulse cause the heart to contract the delay between one impulse and another allows the heart to relax.
what affects the caridic cycle?
-sympathic nerve. slows down the heart.
-parasympathic nerve. speeds up the heart.
what helps the artery adapt to carry blood at high pressure form the heart?
-having a smooth endothliem which allows no resistance.
- thick muscular wall which expands and contracts around the pulses of blod forcing it forward.
how is the vein adapted to carry blood back to the heart at low pressure?
-has semi luna valves that prevent the backflow of blood.
-To cope with flow against gravity and the little muscular tissue to squeeze blood up it is aided by the surronding muscles.
- when contracted squeezes on the vein.
what helps the capillary function?
- has a small lumen this means red blood cells have to travel through in single file which causes rapid drop in blood pressure.
-they are 1 or two cells thick allows the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to the surronding muscles
what is a risk?
-potential of something to go wrong.
-A factor that coud increase the likelihood of an event.
what are the risk factors of chd?
-lack of exercise
-high cholestral- fatty foods
what are the risk factors of atherosclerasis?
-high blood pressure.
-weaking of the membrane of the artery
-high cholestral diet.
They result in a squestration of the depositing of fatty substances.
what is the net result?
is the formation of plaque. it hardens with calcium deposits to form atherana which breaks the artery. Any damage will cause a blood clot to form futher blockage in the artery.
how does a blood clot form?
-damage to the blood vessel wall.
-platlets stick to damage vessel.
-platlets stick to each other forming plug.
-platlets release thromboplastin
-plasma carries calcium and vitaim k.
-soluble fibrinogen.
-insoluble fribin mesh traps red blood cells forming a clot.
what is a stroke?
the breaking away of plaque or blood clot cause an artery to block in the brain tissue.
what is chd?
The clot moves to the heart. oxygen is not supplied to miocardial cells and the heart tissues die.
what elements make a carbohydrate?
what is a monosacharide, diasacharide, oligosaccharide, polysaccharide.
-monosacharide. single bond unit
-diasacharide. 2 sugar units linked together.
-oligosaccharide. 3 - 10 sugar units.
-polysaccharide. large amount of sugar units
what is the chemical reation between bonds sugar called?
how is the bonding reversed?
the bonding is reveresed by hydrolysis which is the reaction with water.
what are lipids?
-made up of fats and oils.
-they don't dissovle in water but are soluble in non-polar solvent.
-glycerol form a lipid with fatty acids. which is C3H803
what is fatty acid a representation of?
glycerol. zigzag is hydrocarbon.
what are the moles that form fat?
glycerol and fatty acids.
what does the condensation reaction produce?
produce fat and water.
whats difference between oils and fats?
-fats are solid at room temp and oils at liquids.
-fats have high melting points because saturated.
what are the bonds?
-cabon is joined by single bond.
-hydrocarbon chain is saturated when hydrogen is removed a double bond is formed this is then unsaturated.
-fatty acids are monounsaturated cause of single bond.
-unsaturated triglycerides high melting points.
what is cholestral?
-molecule made up of a sterol and is lipid complex.
-taken in through diet.
-picked up from blood by HDL and LDL.
-Lipoproteins remove cholestral.
what is LDL?
picks up cholestral and takes it straight to cell which binds with receptors.
what is the human respiratory system?
-consists of encolsed system of airways and sacs which allow gas exchange.
-protected by ribs, sternum and thick muscle membrane(diaphragm)
-airways begin with teachea which extends from nasal cavity and larynx.
-trachea bifurcates into the branchus whic leads the airway into lung tissue.
-bronchioles lead from bronchus to aveilo.
-aveilo sacs are enclosed within plural membrane.
-plural membrane maintaince the shape of the lungs.
-airways are lined with goblet cells and ciliated epthelium which attached to basement membrane.
what does the epithelium have?
-epithelium have hairline projections called cilla. These sweep debre from the lungs and the goblet cells produce sticky mucus which traps particles.
how does the ventilation of respiratory system work?
-allows for the maxium exchange of oxygen and CO2 inhilation occurs when air is allowed to passively enter the lungs.
-this causes the intercostal muscles to contrat and ribs to swing outwards and upwards and the diaphragm contracts this increases the volume but decreases pressure.
what is tidal volume?
during relaxed breathing you will on average move 0.5dm of air.
what is ventilation rate?
the amount of breaths/ minute times by the volume.
what is expiratory reserve volume?
when you breath out as you can the air you breath out is your ERV
what is residual volume?
The air left in your lungs so they do not collapse is your RV
what is inspiratory reserve volume?
after expelleing your ERV you take a deep breath you will accomodate extra air this is your IRV
what is vital capacity?
by adding your ERV + IRV +TV this is the largest amount of air your lungs can move.
what is peak expiratory flow rate?
The rate at which air can be forced or expelled.
what is forced experiatory volume?
The volume of air that can be expired in 1st second.
function of alveoli?
-adapted to act as a membrane over which carbon dioxide and oxygen can dffuse into and out of blood.
structure of alvelio?
- alveoli are composed of bunches of individual alveoli this increases surface area.
-alveoli are surronded by capillary network the membrane of which is one cell thick and allows rapid diffusion.