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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What is the difference between antibodies and antigens?
Antibodies are defenses in an immune system, antigens are the attacking invaders from outside the immune system.
What do B lymphocytes do?
secrete antibodies called immmunoglobulins
B lymphocytes do something with immunoglobulins.
What do T lymphocytes do?
express surface proteins (T-cell receptors)
T lymphocytes express proteins somewhere
Where do immunoglobulins come from?
antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes
What do immunoglobulins do?
react with soluble antigens
react with what?
What is the physical form of immunoglobulins?
tetrametric proteins, 2 identical heavy and light chains
blank metric , blank# of heavy and light chains
What do T lymphocyte surface proteins do ?
bind antigens on other cells
How is the diversity of immunoglobulins (T receptors) generated?
by recombination during immune system development.
How many genes does the human genome have?
10 to the fifth power
How many different antibodies are possible in the human system?
10 to the eleventh power
At which terminus of each heavy and light chain is the constant region?
The C-terminus
At which terminus of each heavy and light is the variable region?
The N-terminus
Which region and terminus contains the antigen binding site?
The variable region on the N-terminus
How many antigen binding sites does each antibody have?
2 sites per antibody molecule
What type of region did the B lymphocyte's unique immunoglobulins develop in ?
the variable region
Which allows mutagenic events more often, T cell receptors or immunglobulins?
Diversity is in both.
What are five things antigens can be?
1. a pure protein,
2. carbohydrates or lipids with or without proteins,
3. cells or cell parts,
4.recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria,
5.synthetic peptides (10-15 aa) deduced from DNA sequence info for YFG
Polycolonal antibodies use antigen to do what?
inoculate (in adjuvant, an oily mixture to stimulate the system) at weekly intervals
What is serum?
the soluble fraction from clotted blood
How many antibodies are on a variety of sites on the antigen protein in polycolonal antibodies?
Polycolonals sometimes do what with other proteins what contain similar antigenic sites?