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236 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
External Nares
nostrils
Dorsal
back
Ventral
underside
umbilical cord
attaches the fetus to a placenta in the wall of the sow's uterus
umbilical vein
blue, carries nutrients and oxygen from the mother to the fetus
umbilical artery
red, carries waste products and carbon dioxide away from the fetus
anus
posterior opening of the digestive tract
genital papilla
in female pig, small fleshy projection near anus
urogenital opening
where genital papilla protrudes from in female pigs, found just behind umbilical cord in male pigs
posterior
behind
caudal
behind
scrotum
contains the testes
buccal cavity
in mouth of pig
hard palate
ridges on roof of pig's mouth
soft palate
behind hard palate, not supported by bone
epiglottis
fleshy piece of tissue extending up into the opening behind the palate deep in the pig's throat
glottis
opening within the epiglottis
anterior
front
diaphragm
thin sheet of muscle separating the anterior thoracic cavity from the more posterior abdominal cavity
heart
in mammals, divided into 4 chambers
right atrium
blood enters from anterior and posterior vena cava, pumps to right ventricle
right ventricle
blood is pumped into this from right atrium, this pumps blood out through the pulmonary trunk
pulmonary
takes blood to lungs to be oxygenated
left atrium
returning blood enters this from lungs
left ventricle
left atrium pumps blood into this, and it pumps blood out of heart
aortic arch
outside of heart where blood is pumped
inferior vena cava
drains blood from the lower part of the body
superior vena cava
brings returning blood from the arms and head
brachiocephalic artery
artery closest to heart carrying blood to the cartoid arteries leading to the head and to the arteries of the right arm and shoulder
left subclavian artery
arises from aorta, carries blood to the left arm and shoulder
iliac arteries
what aorta splits into, 2 of them carry blood to posterior legs
foramen ovale
opening in the wall between the 2 ventricles, in fetuses only
ductus arteriosus
blood which is pumped from the right ventricle out the pulmonary trunk is diverted to the aortic arch through this
lungs
fill thoracic cavity, divided into 7 lobes (4 right/3 left)
larynx
voice box
thymus gland
large mass of glandular tissue which lies along the trachea
thyroid gland
found posterior to larynx
bronchus
where air passes through after trachea, 2 lead into the left and right lungs
bronchiole
smaller and smaller branches of bronchi in the lobes of the lungs
alveoli
ultimate ending of bronchi, minute termincal sacs, where gases are exchanged with the blood
liver
largest organ of the body, liges along the diaphragm and fills the anterior third of the cavity
functions of liver
stores carbs, converts proteins to carbs and fats, detoxifies blood, destroys old red blood cells, secretes bile
gall bladder
small green sac which may be found buried in the liver between two of the right lobes
function of gall bladder
where bile is stored
stomach
under liver
spleen
dark red, tonguelike, under stomach
function of spleen
storage organ for red blood cells
esophagus
what the cardiac region receives food from
fundus
rounded part of the stomach, primary digestive area of the stomach
pyloric sphincter
muscle that regulates the passage of material out of the stomach into the small intestine
pyloric region
posteriormost part of the stomach
small intestine
has 3 regions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
duodenum
part of small intestine, pancreas supports it
pancreas
supports duodenum
function of pancreas
produces many enzymes responsible for the digestion of nearly all foodstuffs, secretes insulin and glucagon, controls carb metabolism
jejunum
part of small intestine
Ileum
part of small intestine
colon
greater part of large intestine, absorbs water, vitamins, and minerals
caecum
blind pouch of small intestine located near its junction with the large intestine
large intestine
stores feces
rectum
short, straight, terminal part of intestine where feces is stored
kidney
bean-shaped, partially embedded in the dorsal body wall along spine, part of excretory system
ureter
small tube from kidney that carries urine to urinary bladder
urinary bladder
where urine is stored for a short time
cortex
outer most layer of kidney
medulla
more central portion of kidney
nephron
kidney is composed of these
glomerulus
part of nephron located in the cortex of kidney
loop of Henle
part of nephron located in the medulla of kidney
renal papilla
project into the renal pelvis
renal pelvis
opens into the ureter
urethra
in males, short structure at the base of the urinary bladder, 2 thin tubes enter
vas deferens
in males, part of urethra
prostate gland
in males, contribute to production of seminal fluids involved with production of sperm, embedded in seminal vesicles
inguinal canal
in males, opening that vas deferens pass through
epididymis
in males, coiled tubular mass wrapped around the oval testis, stores sperm
testis
in males, where sperm are produced
penis
in males, at posterior end of the body, passes deeply through muscle tissue and turns anteriorly clost to rectum
bulbourethral glands
in males, 2, one on each side, opens into the urethra
ovaries
in females, small, beanlike, posterior to kidneys
cervix
in femalesjunction of uters and vagina
urogenital sinus
in females, formed by urethra joining posterior end fo the vagina
mycelium
body of fungal groups usually composed of filaments called hyphae
hypha
filaments that compose myclium
coenocytic
adjoining cell walls are lost and the cytoplasm flows unobstructed through the hypha
spores
cells produced in sporangium
Dictyostelida
example of cellular slime mold (K-protista, P-Acrasiomycota)
plasmodium
large unicells of multinucleate protoplasm, what myxomycotes form
cytoplasmic streaming
constantly flowing cytoplasm within the plasmodium, allows nutrients and metabolic products to be transported throughout the unicellular mass
oomycota
phylum from kingdom protista, egg fungi and water molds
oogonia
large round structures in protists found in oomycota phylum
anteridia
produce sperm in males
oospore
zygotes that are fertilized eggs in the oogoina
zoospores
flagellated zygotes
zygomycota
fungal division, zygospore forming fungi, bread molds
stolon
hyphal filament growing along the substrate
sporangiophores
arise along the stolons, anchored into the substrate by rhizoids
rhizoid
anchors sporangiophores
sporangium
tip of sporangiophore that produces haploid spores as a mode of sexual reproduction
gametangia
grow toward one another when two strains of hyphae are mating filled with haploid nuclei
gametangiophores
fuse together when two strains of hyphae are mating
zygospore
where the haploid nuclei within the gametangiophores fuse to produce a single diploid zygote
ascomycota
fungi division, sac fungi
cytoplasmic bridge
forms between two gametangia and nuclei from one side migrate to the other
dikaryon
N + N chromosomal arrangement
ascus
what sac fungi are characterized by, reproductive sac
ascospores
8 are found in each ascus, haploid
basidiomycota
fungal division, club fungi
stalk
stem of mushroom
cap
top of mushroom
annulus
ring below the cap of a mushroom
basidiocarp
fruiting body of basidiomycetes, made up of dikaryotic hyphae
basidia
reproductive structures located on the margins of the gill structures on the lower surface of the mushroom cap
basidiospore
4 bud off of the basidium and will grow into a new haploid hyphal filament
conidiophores
holds haploid spores of conidia
conidia
haploid spores borne on conidiophores
mycorrhizae
fungi that form associations with the roots of vascular plants, mutual
lichen
symbiotic or commensal relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
chlorophyta
division of kingdom protista, green algae
chlorophyll
primary photosynthetic pigment, green
starch
how carbs are stored in plants
cellulose
what a cell wall in plants is composed of
chloroplast
site of photosynthesis in green plants
daughter colonies
small, seen within the parent colony
pyrenoids
site of starch storage within the chloroplast
cell walls
separate cells
conjugation tube
forms between two nearby filaments during sexual reproduction of spirogyra
conjugation
sexual reproduction that spirogyra undergoes
zygote
when two nuclei fuse they form this
alternation of generations
succession between a haploid and a diploid condition, revolution between a gametophyte and a sporophyte
haploid
1N plants, called gametophytes
gametophytes
1N plants, produce gametes
gametes
haploid sex cells
archegonia
specialized organ that produces haploid eggs
antheridia
specialized organ that produces haploid sperm
egg
haploid sex cell produced by archegonia
sperm
haploid sex cell produced by antheridia
syngamy
represents the transition to the diploid generation
diploid
2N generation, plant is referred to as a sporophyte because it produces spores
sporophyte
diploid plant that produces spores
meiosis
what sporangia undergoresulting in haploid spores, shift from sporophyte to gametophyte
heterosporous
spores develop develop into different unisexual gametophytes, either male or female
homosporous
spores develop into gametophytes with both male and female sex organes
bryophyta
division of plantae kingdom, mosses and liverworts
dioecious
separate male and female plants bearing sexual reproductive organs within the tip of the plant thallus
antheridiophores
flower looking structures that grow above the flat leafy body of the gametophyte that antheridia are born on
archegoniophores
palm tree looking structures that grow above the flat leafy body of the gametophyte that archegonia are born on
gemmae
how liverworts reproduce sexually by means of these small discs of vegetative cells
gemmae cups
grow on the upper surface of the liverwort thallus, what gemmae develop into through mitosis
xylem
conduct water and dissolved minerals, chiefly from the roots up into the stem, branches and leaves
vessels
cells that make up functional xylem, dead and consist only of empty cell walls left from living cells
phloem
vascular tissue that transports the photosynthate, product of photosynthesis
sieve tube cells
cells that make up the phloem tissue, living but lack nucleus
companion cells
directs metabolic activity of sieve tube cells that are adjacent and nucleated
rhizome
lateral stem underground that is absorptive, form of root
lycophyta
division of kingdom plantae, club mosses and quillworts
true roots
contain vascular tissues
microphyll
club moss leaf, typically small with a single, unbranching trace of vascular tissue arising from the stem and invading the leaf
megaphylls
leaves with extensively branching vascular tissue, found in more advanced plants
strobili
cluster of sprophylls bearing sporangia positioned laterally on the stem
nodes
joints on stems
internode
region between nodes on leaves where lateral, jointed branches arise
vegetative shoot
infertile type that arises from a perennial underground rhizome
pterophyta
division of plantae, true ferns
fronds
large, megaphyll leaves that arise from small, underground rhizomes in ferns
roots
project from underground stems and absorb water and needed minerals from the soil
sorus
reproductive clusters of sporangia formed on the undersurface of fern fronds
indusium
flap of tissue protecting the sporangia in ferns
prothallus
free-living gametohyte that fern grows into, has a short life span with no conducting tissues and small stature
seed
plant embryo, mature ovule
megagametophyte
female haploid generation
microgametophyte
male haploid generation
pollen
what microgametophytes are reduced to, composed of only three or four cells, male gametophyte
cycadophyta
division of plantae, cycads
ginkgophyta
division of plantae, ginkgo
spur shoots
arise off of the longs shoots comprising the main stem and branches, bliobed fan-shaped leaves and fruits are borne on these
coniferophyta
division of plantae, conifers
monoecious
reproduction in conifers has only spores
staminate cones
male cones that are higher up on the tree than the ovulate cones
ovulate cones
female cones that are lower on the tree than the staminate cones
microsporangium
large structures seen making up the bulk of the staminate cone
microsporophyll
microsporangia are suspended from the undersurface of these
nucellus
diploid nutritive tissue within the integument and surrounding the female gametophyte
anthophyta
divisio of plantae
flower
made up of a series of closely associated elembents, collecting into whorls, homologous to a shoot bering fertile and non-fertile appendages, that has been condensed and specialized
calyx
outer non-reproductive portion of the flower, made up of a whorl of sepals
corolla
inner non-reproductive portion of the flower, made up of petals
stamen
male part of a flower, surround central pistil, consist of anther on the tip of a filament
pistil
female part of a flower, composed of stigma, style, and ovary
anther
on the tip of a filament, part of the stamen, filled with pollen, where microsporogenesis occurs
microsporogenesis
meiotic divisions that produce pollen
carpel
individual segments of an ovary which are fused together
megaspore mother cell
large diploid cell in the center of an ovule in a flower, develops into an embryo sac
embryo sac
female megagametophyte that is surrounded by two integuments and is what the megaspore mother cell develops into, primarily haploid
micropyle
opening between the integuments that surround the embryo sac of a flower
megaspores
embyro sac undegoes a meiotic cell division, resulting in a single cell with 4 haploid of these
antipodal
3 of the 4 triploid nuclei form these nuclei
polar
1 of the 4 triploid nuclei form this nucleus
synergids
2 are produced from the remaining haploid nucleus from initial meiotic division which undergoes two rounds of mitotic cell divsions, near the micropyle
double fertilization
sexual reproduction where pollen grains are released, carried to stigma, creates a pollen tube and releases 2 sperm nuclei to have 2 fertilization events
stigma
site of pollination
pollination
pollen is deposited on teh pistil
pollen tube
grows down through the style of flower when pollen grain germinates, has 3 nuclei, grows into the ovary to an ovule
pollen tube nucleus
directs the metabolic activities of the tube
endosperm
nutritive tissue utilized by the growing embryo, formed by the pentaploid nucleus
ray flower
outer-most, have retained a few petals
disc flowers
within the head, have no petals
composites
plants with clusters of modified flowers
monocotyledones
monocots, single seed leaf, petals in multiples of 3 (trimerous), parallel venation, tissue in scattered vascular bundles, adventitious roots (bunches, fine)
cotyledon
seed leaf
dicotyledones
dicots, 2 seed leaves, petals in multiples of 4(tetramerous) or 5 (pentamerous), reticulate venation, tissue in rings around stem, primary roots (one main root)
parenchyma
basic ground cell of plants, make up the bulk of the plant body
schlerenchyma
thick-walled cells important in support
collenchyma
modified form of parenchyma specialized for supprt in young plant organs
apical meristem
sites of active cell division
vascular cambium
causes secondary growth (increase in diameter), meristematic tissue
cork cambium
formation causes lateral growth, located in the cortex outside of the phloem tissue
axillary bud
at the base of the leaves, small
root cap
covers the tip of the root, layer of cells which protect the apical meristem as it grows through the soil
lenticels
numerous scatterings in the bark allowing gas exchange with the underlying vascular tissues
pith
very large, thin-walled cells making up the bulk of the center of the stem
vascular bundles
where conducting tissues are found, arranged in a circular pattern around the periphery of the stem
vascular cambium
only a single-cell layer thick, between xylem and phloem
periderm
outside of phloem, in position of epidermis which is lost during secondary growth, composed of phellogen
phellogen
cork cambium, meristematic tissue which produces phelloderm parenchymal cells toward the inside and phellum cells to the outside
phelloderm
cells toward the inside
phellum
cork, toward the outside
cuticle
thin covering on the upper epidermis that helps prevent water oss from the leaf surface
palisade mesophyll
elongated cells under the upper epidermis, primary site of photosynthetic activity within the leaf
compound leaves
composed of a number of leaflets
palmate leaves
vascular veins are arranged like fingers radiating rom the palm of your hand
pinnate leaves
vascular veins are arranged like the filaments of a bird feather
stele
vascular cylinder of the root
casparian strip
waxy covering where junctions between cells of the outermost layer of the stele and the endodermis are sealed, prevents water from passing around the cell
pericycle
just inside the endodermis, layer of cells responsible for the formation of lateral roots
root hairs
covers root, structures that significantly increase the amount of surface area available for the absorption of water and minerals