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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
WHAT DOES
"PHOTO" MEAN?
Light
WHAT DOES
"SYNTHESIS" MEAN?
To Make
AUTOTROPH
An organism that can
produce it's own food.
HETEROTROPH
An organism that must
take in food for energy.
WHAT IS
PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
The Process where
organisms capture
radiant energy, combine
it with CO2 to produce
Glucose and O2.
WHAT ARE TWO TO
PROCESSES IN
PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
Light Reaction
Dark Reaction
(Calvin Cycle)
WHAT ARE THREE
MAJOR EVENTS THAT
TAKE PLACE DURING
PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
*Light absorption
*Conversion of radiant
energy into chemical
energy
*Storage (Sugars)
PROPERTIES OF LIGHT:

THE SUN'S RADIANT
ENERGY TRAVELS...
in waves
PROPERTIES OF LIGHT:

VISABLE LIGHT APPEARS WHITE
BUT IS ...
a combination of
colors traveling at
different wavelengths
PROPERTIES OF LIGHT:

OBJECTS APPEAR IN
CERTAIN COLORS BECAUSE...
they reflect the
wavelengths of
that color
PROPERTIES OF LIGHT:

COLORS THAT ARE
ABSORBED ARE...
not seen
WHAT IS A
PHOTOSYNTHETIC
ORGANISM?
Any organism that can
trap radiant energy and
convert it into energy,
ie: Green Plants.
CHLOROPLAST
Specialized organelles that
contain various pigments
WHAT ARE THE PIGMENTS?
Chlorophyll
Chlor
Carotenes
Xanophyll
Anthocyanins
CHLOROPHYLL
Green that absorbs
radiant energy from
the sun.
CHLOR
A & B absorb major wave-
lengths of radiant energy
and reflect green which
contain U.V. rays.
CAROTENES
Orange Colors
XANOPHYLL
Yellow colors
ANTHOCYANINS
Reds and Purples
WHY DO LEAVES CHANGE?
Light intensity changes
Chlorophyll breaksdown
(greens fade)
Accessory pigments
remain
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
SITE
Leaf food supply factory:
Large surface
area = more absorption.
Structure is adapted to
minimize light absorption
and diffuse C02.
LEAF STRUCTURE:

WHAT IS UPPER EPIDERMIS?
A single layer of cells
(upper and lower)
LEAF STRUCTURE:
UPPER EPIDERMIS

WHAT IS THE CUTICLE?
Waxy layer that provides
water repellant protection
on top of the epidermis.
Cutin
LEAF STRUCTURE:
UPPER EPIDERMIS

WHAT IS STOMATA?
Pores that allow gas exchange
via diffusion.
LEAF STRUCTURE:
UPPER EPIDERMIS

WHAT ARE GUARD CELLS?
Cells that cover and protect
the stomata.
LEAF STRUCTURE:
UPPER EPIDERMIS

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN
THE SUN COMES UP?
PS starts...
glucose is made...
osmosis
H2O rush into guard cells
which expand & rock back
LEAF STRUCTURE:
UPPER EPIDERMIS

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN
THE SUN GOES DOWN?
PS ends...
cell respiration uses glucose...
H2O leaves cells...
guard cells shrink &
collapse in.
LEAF STRUCTURE:
UPPER EPIDERMIS

WAHT ARE THE 2
PARTS OF MESOPHYLL
Pallisade parynchyma
(upper mesophyll)
Spongy parenchyma
(lower mesphyll)
LEAF STRUCTURE:
UPPER EPIDERMIS

VASCULAR TISSUE (VEIN)
XYLEM:
Carries H2O to the leaf
PHLOEM:
Carries glucose and
wastes away from the leaf.
LEAF STRUCTURE:
UPPER EPIDERMIS

TRANSPIRATION
Loss of H2O vapor
through the stomates
LEAF STRUCTURE:
UPPER EPIDERMIS

COHESION
H2O is pulled up the
stem Xylem by strong
attraction of water molecules
to each other.
LEAF STRUCTURE:
UPPER EPIDERMIS

ADHESION
Strong attraction of water
molecules to the Xylem Walls.
LEAF STRUCTURE:

WHAT ARE THE 3
PARTS OF THE
CHLOROPLAST?
Thylakoids
Grana
Stroma
LEAF STRUCTURE:
CHLOROPLAST

WHAT ARE
THYLOAKOIDS?
Flattened sacs in the
Choroplast where the
light reaction occurs.
LEAF STRUCTURE:
CHLOROPLAST

WHAT ARE
GRANA?
Stacked thylakoids
in the
Choroplast
LEAF STRUCTURE:
CHLOROPLAST

WHAT ARE
STROMA?
Solution that surrounds
the Grana (calvin cycle
occurs here) in the
Choroplast
WHAT ARE THE
TWO STEPS IN THE
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
PROCESS?
Light Reaction
Calvin Cycle
WHERE DOES LIGHT
REACTION OCCUR?
In the thylakoids
WHAT HAPPENS DURING
LIGHT REACTION?
It makes a building
material for CO2
fixation, H+ and ATP.
WHAT ARE THE KEY
PRODUCTS OF
LIGHT REACTION?
A TP
NADPH
LIGHT REACTION
STEP 1
Two groups of pigments
called PS I and PS II work
together to absorb radiant
energy.
LIGHT REACTION
STEP 2
Radiant energy is concentrated
and transferres to special
chlorophyll "a" molecules called
reaction centers. (Reaction
centers are a section in the
PS I and PS II.)
LIGHT REACTION
STEP 3
Electrons in each reaction center
are eregized and the capured
by protein electron transport
system (ETS).
LIGHT REACTION
STEP 4
Electrons lost from the PS II
are replaced by H2O that is
cleared only at PS II's
reaction center.
H2O....2H+ + 2e - +O
LIGHT REACTION
STEP 5
A+ the end from H20 of the
e.t.s. the electrons H+s from
H2O are picked up by the
coenzyme NadP+ forming
NAPH + carried to the
stroma to the calvin cycle.
LIGHT REACTION
STEP 6
A high [A+] build up
inside the thylakoid.
The H+'s diffuse through
the thylakoid membrane
passing through an
enzyme called ATP
synthestaz uses the H+
kinetic energy to attach a
Phosphate to ADP forming ATP.
LIGHT REACTION
REACTION SUMMARY
ATP _ NADPH production
H2O cleared to provide
electrons +O2
Occurs during daylight.
WHERE DOES THE CALVIN
CYCLE OCCUR?
In the Stroma
WHAT DOES THE CALVIN
CYCLE REQUIRE?
The products from the
light reaction to occur:
NADPH & ATP.
CALVIN CYCLE
STEP 1
The enzyme Rubisco helps
to combine one molecule
of 5C-UBP to one CO2
(C02 Fixation).
CALVIN CYCLE
STEP 2
Each PGA reacts with it's
own ATP and NADPH
forming two molecules
of PGAL (C3H6O3)
CALVIN CYCLE
STEP 3
The Calvin Cyle must turn
3 times. Each turn producing
1CO2 to produce 6 PGALS
of the 6PGALS made, 5 are
required to go back into the
cycle to generate move RUBP.
CALVIN CYCLE
SUMMARY
CALVIN CYCLE SUMMARY:
CO2 Fixation
Oxidation/Reduction
1PGAL = 2 turns
2 PGALS + 1 Glucose molecule
1 Glucose Molecule = 6 turns
PHOTORESPIRATION
Process where Rubisco
reacts with )2 and RUBP
WHAT RESULTS
FROM
PHOTO-
RESPIRATION?
1 molecule of 3C-PGA
and 1 molecule of 2C
Glycolate.
WHAT ARE THE 4
FACTORS THAT
EFFECT PHOTO-
SYNTHESIS?
Temperature
CO2 Concentration
O2 Concentration
Light intensity