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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chlorophylls absorb what light
orange, yellows
cartenoids absorbs what light
greens and blues
oxygen given off by synthesis comes from what?
water
What is reduced in a photosynthesis reaction?
CO2
What is oxidized in a photosynthesis reaction?
H2O
What are mesophyll cells
in the center of a leaf getting water from vessels from leaves to roots, protected by epidermal tissue that is covered by a waxy cuticle
Stomats
Holes in the leaves that allow passage of CO2 and O2, contains enzyme-rich solution where CO2 is reduced
Thylakoids
membranous system in stroma, flattened sacs sometimes stacked (grana); pigments found inside them which collect solar energy to energize electrons prior or reduction of CO2 in stroma
Process of Light-Dependent Reactions
Electrons energized when pigments absorb energy from sun, electrons
Where is CO2 reduced?
stroma
Light Dependent reactions process
Solar NRG --> thylakoid --> e- energized --> taken up by NADP+ (e- carrier) --> NADP+ becomes NADPH
Light INdependent RXN process
(Calvin Cycle): CO2 is taken up by substrate --> CO2 is reduced by ATP/NADPH--> ATP becomes ADP+P, NADPH becomes NADP+ --> return to light-dependent RXNs (synthesizing carbohydrate)

Requires more ATP than NADPH
Light Dependent: PS 1 process
sun --> pigment --> reaction-center chlorophyll a, e- becomes excited--> e- escapes into an e- acceptor molecule

REDUCES NADP TO NADPH
Cyclic E- Pathway
generates only ATP; begins after PS I pigment gets NRG; high NRG e- leave PS1 reaction center --> go through e- transport system (opt.)
Electron Transport System, Cytochrome System
series of carriers, where e- will pass through allowing NRG used to make ATP is released and stored

CONNECTS PS I AND PS I; PUMPS H+
Noncyclic Electron Pathway (creates both ATP and NADPH)
E- moves from H2O through PS II to PS I then to NADP+; begins when PS II pigment absorbs NRG and e- leave RXN center

Takes replacement e- from H2O to release O2
E- that leave PS II, what happens to them?
get captured by an e- acceptor --> e- transport system --> NRG used to make ATP is released&stored; low NRG e- go back to PSI to recharge
ATP synthase
has a H+ channel and protruding ATP synthase; H+ flows through here into the stroma and ATP is produced
NADPH & ATP in PS II
produced in PS I by reducing water; reduces CO2
Reduction of CO2: where, how?
in stroma of chloroplast during Calvin Cycle; doesn't require light but occurs during daytime where there's lots of ATP

CO2 taken up by RuBP (5 Carbons) --> breaks down to 2 PGA (3 C) --> reduced to PGAL using NADPH&ATP --> each becomes more energized
PGAL (3 C)
product of Calvin cycle; becomes organic molecules

can be combined with fructose to make sucrose that transports carbs through plants
Starch
storage form of glucose, some in chloroplasts, mostly in roots
RuBP carboxylase
enzyme that speeds up the combination of CO2 with RuBP (5 C);

20-50% of protein in chloroplasts because it's SLOW AS HELL
5 PGAL regenerate ___ RuBP?
3