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107 Cards in this Set

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Synapomorphy for Lissamphibia?
poison glands and mucous glands that develop at metamorphosis
Synapomorphy for Amniota?
amniotic egg
loss of aquatic larval stage
lung ventilation by moving rib cage
penis with erectile tissue
Synapomorphy for Sauropsida?
B-keratin in scales and feathers
Synapomorphy for Testinudines?
shell
toothless
jaws covered by a horny beak
loss of some skull bones
jaw muscles have pulley-like trochlear process
shelf-like structure off the back of the skull
Synapomorphy of Diapsida?
skull structure: 2 holes
Synapomorphy for Lepidosauria (Sphenodontida and Squamata)?
tail autonomy
Synapomorphy for Squamata?
modification of diapsid skull
hemepenes
Synapomorphy for Archosauria?
key-hole shaped orbit
antorbital fenestra
mandibular fenestra
laterally compressed teeth
flexible ankles
4th trochanter to retract thigh
Synapomorphy for Crurotarsi (Crocodylia)?
secondary palate
Synapomorphy for Ornithodirans?
rotation of limbs under body
bipedalism
Synapomorphy for Pterosauria?
hand has 3 short fingers and 1 long finger
new bone (pteroid) in wrist
Synapomorphy for Dinosauria?
forelimbs < half the length of hindlimbs
legs carried completely under body
changes in shape of pelvis associated with bipedalism
s-shaped neck
Synapomorphy of Ornithischian?
cheeks
reduced antorbital fenestra
tip of snout is rough and toothless
jaw joing below level of upper tooth row
coronoid process for greater crushing force
herbivores
Synapomorphy of Saurischia?
hip-pubis facing forward
further elongation of the neck
modifications of the vertebral articulations
Synapomorphy of Aves?
toothless beak
tail bones reduced to a stub (pygostyle)
fusion of hand elements
feathers
Synapomorphy for Sauropodomorpha?
herbivores
big
many secondarily quadripedal
Synapomorphy for Therapod?
carnivores
laterally flattened teeth
hollow long bones
Amphibian Ancestral Life Cycle
eggs -> aquatic larvae -> metamorphosis -> adult terrestrial
Salamander metamorphosis
external gills are lost in adults
adults gain skin glands
takes weeks to months
Frog metamorphosis
can't eat during meta.
occurs quickly - within days
vulnerable to predation
Amphibian ways to lose metamorphosis
1. direct development: loss of aquatic larval stage
2. paedomorphosis: reproductively mature as larvae
Components of amniotic egg
hard or leathery shell
embryonic gas exchange
chorion
amnion
allantois
water retention to protect against drying out
Thermoregulation: sources vs. stability
Sources: endothermy and exothermy
Stability: poikilothermy and homeothermy
Challenges of desert living
1. temp regulation
2. water balance
3. locomotion
4. patchy resources
Functions of forked tongue in snakes and some lizards
chemosensory (combined with Jacob's organ)
sense of direction
not used to catch prey
Vomeronasal organ in snakes
Jacob's organ
connected to mouth and brain directly
Types of lizards with forked tongues
1. Monitor lizard (Komodo dragon)
2. Gila monsters
Types of snake feedings
1. constriction
2. venom
3. bite by bite (atypical)
Elapids
coral snakes and cobras
Viperids
rattlesnakes
Mechanism of Envenomation
1. venom stored in glad in upper jaw
2. fangs - hollow injection devices
3. muscles inject venom
4. may also be used in digestion
Components of venom
proteolytic enzymes
hyaluronidase
L-amino acid oxidase
phospholipases
phosphatases
basic polypeptides
Ancestral skull condition
anapsid
Turtle shell components
top shell: carapace
flat bottom: plastron
bone connecting the 2: bridge
each piece of shell: scute
Turtle ribs (characteristics)
fused to carapace
outside shoulder and hips
Proganochelys
turtle fossil
exactly the same as modern turtles
no intermediate
Turtle fossil that is exactly the same as modern turtles
Proganochelys
2 types of living turtles
Cryptodira
Pleurodira
Cryptodira neck movement
s-shaped retraction
Pleurodira neck movement
sideways bending
How do turtles breathe? (2 ways)
1. muscles and membranes at front and rear of the shell raise and lower internal organs to pump air
2. cloacal breathing if under water
Terrestrial turtles vs. Aquatic turtles
Terrestrial: shells are high, domed shaped
claws for digging
Aquatic: shells are flat, streamlined
feet webbed or modified flippers
Turtle sex determination
temperature-based
colder temps are more likely to be male
Characteristics of turtles reproductive lifestyle
long lived
slow to reproduce
all oviparous
no parental care of young
3 extant types of crocodylians
1. Alligatoridae
2. Crocodylidae
3. Gavialidae
Alligator vs. Crocodile
Alligator: long, broad snout
upper jaw wider than lower jaw
Crocodile: narrow snout
closed jaw fits together
Characteristics of Crocodylians
dermal armor
semi-aquatic
laterally flattened tail
secondarily aquatic
flexible ankles
ectothermic
ductus arteriosus
largely tropical or subtropical
oviparous
provide parental care
How do crocodiles hatch?
"egg tooth" on nose
1st vertebrate with ability to fly?
Pterosaurs
Pterosaur adaptations to flight?
hollow bones
big sternum
enlarged flocculus
2 types of Pterosaurs
Pterodactyloid (tail-less)
Rhamphorhynchoid (long tail with expanded portion)
What made Pterosaurs successful?
1. morphologically and ecologically diverse (due to diet variations)
2. persisted from Late Triassic to Cretaceous ~150 my
Ankylosaurus
Ornithiscian
osteoderms (bones in skin) make defensive plates and spikes
Iguanodon
Ornithiscian
bipedal to run - quadripedal most of time
Hadrosaurs
Ornithiscian
"duck-billed" dinosaurs
tooth plates
Triceratops
Ornithiscian
enlarged skull at back of head
beak like a parakeet
Pachycephalosaurs
Ornithiscian
bipedal
giant, bony dome on top of head
Sauropodomorpha (Saurischian)
herbivorous
biggest terrestrial animal to ever live
Plateosaurus
Saurischian - Sauropod dinosaur
leaf-shaped, serrated teeth
gastroliths in gizzard helped grind food
Camarasaurus
Saurischian - Sauropod dinosaur
front and back legs nearly equal
short skull
skull has lots of holes
Diplodocus
Saurischian - Sauropod dinosaur
longest necks
somewhat homeothermic
Social behavior of dinosaurs
eggs in a nest-like place: breeding grounds, possibly colonial
Sauropod embryos had lizard-like skin
Lineage that led to modern birds
Therapods
3 major groups of Therapods
1. Tyrannosaurids
2. Ornithomimids
3. Maniraptorans
Tyrannosaurus
Saurischian - Therapod - Tyrannosaurid
possibly a scavenger
giant, big-headed
Struthiomimus
Saurischian - Therapod dinosaur - Ornithomimid
Deinonychus
Saurischian - Therapod dinosaur - Maniraptoran
size of a dog
swiveling hands and shoulders
claws penetrated and stuck in prey
Oviraptor
Saurischian - Therapod dinosaur - Maniraptoran
skeleton found wrapped over eggs
possibly endothermic
How do we know birds evolved from reptiles?
1. lower jaw is several bones, fused
2. single middle ear vs. 3 in mammals
3. schlerotic eye ring
4. single occipital condyle
5. nucleated RBCs
6. scales on legs similar to reptile body scales
Archaeopteryx
intermediate between dinosaurs and modern birds
no beak
claws on wing
therapod dinosaur with feathers virtually identical to those on modern birds
Name some important similarities among dinosaurs, Archaeopteryx, and modern birds
1. features of the skull
2. elongate s-shaped neck
3. fused clavicle and sternum
4. fusion of pelvic elements to the vertebrae
5. forelimbs elongated through elongation of digits
6. bipedalism
7. tridactyl foot
8. digitigrade walkers
9. pneumatic bones
10. highly mobile wrists
11. rotatable shoulder joints
3 Chinese fossils
1. Sinosauropteryx
2. Caudipteryx
3. Microraptor gui
Signficance of the Chinese Fossils
1. dinosaurs with primitive and more advanced feathers
2. birds are only modern animals with feathers, so it is unlikey they descended from any other lineage
3. Chinese fossils are so old that it is likely that ALL therapod dinosaurs had some sort of feathering
Dilong paradoxus
feathered Tyrannosaurid
2 theories of flight
1. Arborial "trees down"
2. Cursorial "ground up"
Arboreal theory
squirrel-like lifestyle
jumping from tree to tree led to selection for gliding
gliding led to flapping
*young Hoatzins act this way
Cursorial theory
terrestrial predators running and grabbing prey with forearms
WAIR
wing-assisted incline running
Wing-assisted incline running
quails independent at birth
use of proto wings may have assisted birds in scaling trees
wing angle changes with change in steepness of incline
WAIR significance
1. compelling alternative explanation for the evolution of flight
2. demonstration of an advantage associated with small increases in forelimb area
Ornithurae
lineage that gave rise to modern birds
Ichthyornis
Ornithurae
still had teeth
large keeled sternum
Neornithes
modern birds
When did modern birds arise?
60 million years ago
When did most diversification of birds occur?
Tertiary period
2 of the first modern birds
Bullockornis ("Demon duck of Doom")
Diatryma
Important question about bird evolution
endothermy
Why is food central to avian biology?
birds must eat very frequently (often every few seconds)
high species diversity due to high diversity in beak forms
Sources of Feeding Diversity
access to every kind of habitat
elimination of teeth
rhamphotheca relatively easily modified
Rhamphotheca
keratin sheath over jaw beaks
Bird bills size and shape can vary with:
age
sex
season
species
food supply
Major food processing techniques in birds
cranioinertial feeding
lingual transport
filter feeding
Unusual behaviors in birds
food caching (storing food)
tool use
Types of tools birds use
break eggs with rocks
sticks to pick up grubs
drop nuts over streets
Mating systems are influenced by:
an evolutionary commitment to internal fertilization, heterogamy, high body temps, and big helpless offspring
Types of mating systems
monogamy
polygamy:
polygyny
polyandry
polygynandry
promiscuity
Types of monogamy
1. social monogamy - cheating
2. long-term pair bonds
Types of chick hatchlings
1. precocial-fully functioning
2. altricial-completely helpless
What influences the type of polygamy?
1. eggs are expensive, sperm is cheap
2. males are never 100% sure of paternity
3. egg laying is slow
4. sex ratio
Expenses of parental care
energetics
mortality
lost opportunities for additional reproduction
2 groups of Neornithes
Paleognathae
Neognathae
2 groups of Neognathae
Galloanserae
Neoaves
Polygamy Threshold Model
bird will always pick the highest quality territory she can get into
Female Bird Reproductive System
1 oviduct and 1 ovary
Fertlization just past ovary
Shell is last thing to be added
How do birds eggs last in shipping?
cleidoic - hard calcerous shell
Advantage of a cleidoic egg?
protection
Bird eggs are variable in what ways?
size
shape
color
texture