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67 Cards in this Set

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Digestive function for bile:
Required for fat digestion and secreted from the gallbladder into the small intestine. It emulsifies the fat by carrying negative charges, which coat the fat and cause the coated particles to separate from each other. This allows the lipase more surface area to digest the fat.
Digestive function for colon:
Also known as the large intestine. All material not absorbed in the small intestine goes to the colon, where it is concentrated and made into feces (water, undigested/absorbed stuff, basteria). It then contracts to move the feces downwards-water moves out of the colon through osmosis during this.
Digestive function of the esophagus:
It connects the pharynx (entrance to esophagus from mouth) to the stomach. It contracts and propels food past a sphincter, into the mouth.
Digestive function of the gallbladder:
Stores and concentrates bile, which the liver secretes to help break down fat.
Digestive function of hydrochloric acid:
One of the substances that makes up gastric fluid, which is a high-acid substance that, when combined with the stomach contractions, turns food into chyme
Digestive function of Large intestine:
See colon
Digestive function of lipase:
A fat-digesting enzyme, whose molecules only digest the outside of a fat globule. (see bile for related substance)
Digestive functin of liver:
Secretes bile (see bile)
Digestive function of maltase:
Part of intestinal juice (along with peptidase), digests maltose into glucose (finishes carbohydrate digestion)
Digestive function of oral cavity:
(mouth) Entrance to the digestive system, food is moistened and chewed, salivary amylases are secreted and polysaccharide digestion starts
Digestive function of the pancreas:
Secretes enzymes breaking down all major food molecules (digests to monosaccharides, monoglycerides, free fatty scids, free amino acids, mucleotides, nucleotide bases), and bicarbonate, which helps neutralize HCI from the stomach,
Digestive function of pancreatic amylase:
Digests starch into maltose
Digestive function of pepsin:
Causes proteins to turn into small peptides, comes from pepsinogen
Digestive function of pepsinogen:
It is secreted by glands into the stomach, where it turns into pepsin (so as to prevent it from digesting the stomach lining):
Digestive function of proteinase:
breaks down proteins into simpler compounds
Digestive function of saliva:
Contains salivary amylase, mucins, water, and a buffer (bicarbonate, or HCO3-)
Digestive function of salivary amylase:
Breaks down polysaccharides into disaccharides and polysaccharides
Digestive function of salivary glands:
Produce and secrete saliva into the mouth
Digestive function of the small intestine:
Digestive function of the sphincter:
Digestive function of the stomach:
Stretched to store food taken in faster than can be processed, gastric fluid mizes with food and kills pathogens, protein digestion begins (pepsin)
Digestive function of the teeth:
Reduces size of food for better chemical digestion later
Digestive function of Trypsin:
protein-digesting enzyme
Digestive function of villi:
Capillaries: monosaccharides, amino acids, dipeptides are absorbed
Lacteals: fats are absorbed
Digestive function of villus:
Singular of villi
water and solute uptake into the internal environment
plural: alveoli, where lungs and blood exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide
amino acid
smaller part of polypeptide chain, organic compound with an H atom, amino group, acid gropu, and R group, all covalently bonded to a carbon atom.
the usage of absorbed nutrients to grow, reproduce, or repair
Molecule of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, usually in a 1:2:1 ratio, normally mono-, oligo-, polysaccharides.
a complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell wall of most plants
liquefied food in the stomach (ew)
They way that proteins are used if one amino acid is evil or there is too much protein in the diet
dehydration synthesis
(condensation reaction, dehydration reaction),chemical reaction when two molecules react and become covalently bonded because of the loss of a water molecule
Movement of molecules or ions so that the concentration is even on both sides of some (penetratable) border - if there is less on one side and more on another, some will move from the more side to the less side to even it out
removing waste from the digestive system (just waste? or other...)
What bile does, the breaking up of fats or oils into smaller pieces to be better chemically digested
essential amino acid
an amino acid that an organism cannot make itself and must be obtained from food
the removal of waste materials from the body (NOT the digestive system...that's egestion)
located outside of a cell
fat-soluble vitamin
a vitamin that is soluble in fats (duh)
unabsorbed substances, water, bacteria, that has been concentrated in the colon
A substance in fruits and vegetables that cannot be digested, but helps to keep the feces soft for easier movement down the colon
A simple sugar, how the entire body uses complex carbs as energy, the body's main energy source
Glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles, polysaccharide made of glucoses linked together
A state where the environment is maintained such that cell activity is possible
A pancreatic hormone that lowers glucose levels in blood
An organ that filters metabolic waste, excess minerals out of blood and forms urea (see urea)
Any type of fat, grease, or oil. A lipid functions as a storage form of energy and is used to form membranes.
Internal respiratory organ made up of branches of alveoli where carbon dioxide and oxygen are diffused from alveoli to the bloodstream (through capillaries)
A disaccharide formed when two units of glucose are linked-it is digested by the enzyme maltase
Metabolic waste
Any type of waste not used after a metabolic reaction-in human, it is CO2 and water
Any element/inorganic compound formed by natural geologic processes and is required for normal cell functioning
The simplest carbohydrate-i.e. glucose
An element with a role in metabolism that no other element fills
Waves of contraction and relaxation in tubular or saclike organs
An entrance to the esophagus and trachea from the mouth
Chain of covalently linked sugar units (i.e. cellulose, starch, glycogen), carbohydrate
Organic compound of one or more polypeptide chains (folded and twisted)
Saturated fat
A fat with single covalent bonds between its carbons-it stays solid at room temperature, and is the fat that can cause harm by clogging arteries, etc. (it is harder to eliminate)
Unsaturated fat
A fat that is liquid at room temperature, with double bonds-it does not cause as much harm as saturated fat
The chemical substance taken out of blood by the kidneys. Depending on the person's water level, it will be mixed with some amount of water to form urine
one of two tubes that bring urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
A tube that conducts urine from the bladder to an opening on the outside of the body
Urinary bladder
The sac where urine is stored before being excreted
An organic substance that an organism requires in small amounts for metabolism but generally cannot make itself
Water-soluble vitamin
A vitamin soluble in water