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177 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The most common causes of death today in the United States include all of the following except
tuberculosis
What is the AMDR for fat?
20-35%
All of the following are minimum requirements for becoming a registered dietitian except
completing up to a three-week clinical internship or the equivalent.
An essential nutrient is one that cannot be
made in sufficient quantities by the body.
Features of a chronic disease include all of the following except
it produces sharp pains.
Which of the following is an anthropometric measure?
Body weight
Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on the
Estimated Average Requirement.
The smallest amount of a nutrient that is consumed over a prolonged period that maintains a specific function is called the nutrient
requirement.
By chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in the highest amounts in most foods?
Water
All of the following describe features for application of the recommended nutrient intakes except
the recommendations also apply to sick people.
All of the following are recognized, credible sources of nutrition information except
Who’s Who in Nutrition
How many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
16
What is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol?
755
Which of the following is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency?
Laboratory tests
A person who eats a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day would be displaying a food choice most likely based on
habit.
The percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases are termed the
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
An empty-kcalorie food is one that contains
energy and little or no protein, vitamins or minerals.
Microorganisms in food that are viable when consumed and that are beneficial to health are known as
probiotics.
What is the function of bile?
Emulsifies fats
Which of the following are allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?
Milk products and plant foods only
Which of the following is among the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
Engage in regular physical activities
Which of the following is an enrichment nutrient for grains?
Folate
What is the primary cause for belching?
Swallowing air
For the most part, all of the following are advantages of vegetarian diets except
vitamin B12 intake is higher.
Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except
transmigration
All of the following are documented benefits for people following a vegetarian diet except
lower rates of anemia
What is the principle carbohydrate of milk?
Lactose
Which of the following contains the least amount of fiber?
White rice
Which of the following is a drawback of olestra consumption?
It inhibits absorption of vitamin E
What is the sweetest-tasting simple carbohydrate in the diet?
Fructose
Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fibers?
They are classified according to solubility in water
Which of the following characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?
Both are synthesized in the body
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake?
35
What compound is composed of 3 fatty acids and glycerol?
Triglyceride
All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except
palm oil.
What is the highest blood triglyceride concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?
149
Lipids that are solid at room temperature are known as
fats
A person eating lots of white bread, white rice, and ready-to-eat cereals would have a diet with a glycemic index that is
high.
What type of nutrient is starch?
Complex carbohydrate
What is the first organ to respond to an increase in blood glucose concentration?
Pancreas
If you were to exercise continuously, about how long would glycogen stores last?
A few hours
Which of the following is not a feature of high-fiber foods?
Provide more energy per gram than processed foods
Which of the following is not a rich source of dietary starch?
Fruits
Which of the following is a feature of diabetes?
Dietary management should focus on total carbohydrate intake rather than the type of carbohydrate consumed
What type of compound is lecithin?
Phospholipid
Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?
Monounsaturated
Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form?
Coconut oil
What is the chief reason people choose the foods they eat?
Taste
What organ is affected by colitis?
Large intestine
What nutrient makes up most of the endosperm section of grains such as wheat and rice?
Starch
Which of the following is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?
Its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B12
The types of atoms found in a glucose molecule include all of the following except
nitrogen
What is the name of the projections on the inner surface of the small intestine?
Villi
What is the primary absorption site for digestible carbohydrates?
Small intestine
A major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods is exposure to
heat and oxygen
To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is usually best to
combine different food types to enhance the absorption process
Overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a
positive correlation.
A high risk of heart attack correlates with high blood levels of
low-density lipoproteins
A food label ingredient list reads in the following order: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?
Cornstarch
Which of the following is an example of the difference between the chemical bonds in starch and those in cellulose?
Cellulose bonds are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes
Nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as
phytochemicals.
Legumes are used as meat alternatives for all of the following reasons except
they can be graded as prime, choice, and select.
A decrease in the flow of blood to the intestines is known as
intestinal ischemia
Which of the following is a main criticism of the use of the MyPyramid?
Not enough information is readily available because there is no text
In what organ does the digestion process begin?
Mouth
What is the chemical composition of fats?
Fatty acids and glycerol
People who have frequent, regular bouts of heartburn and indigestion have a medical condition known as
gastroesophageal reflux.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the sugar replacers (sugar alcohols)?
They have a low glycemic index
What is the major sterol in the diet?
Cholesterol
Which of the following is known as blood sugar or dextrose?
Glucose
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum daily intake of cholesterol on a 2500-kcalorie diet?
300 mg
What is the highest total blood cholesterol concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?
199
About how much cholesterol is synthesized by the liver every day?
Less than 300 mg
Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles?
Control the passage of food through the GI tract
Nutrient dense refers to foods that
provide more nutrients relative to kcalories.
How many vitamins are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
13
Which of the following fibers is water insoluble?
Cellulose
Which of the following is not one of the six classes of nutrients?
Fiber
A person wishing to increase consumption of polyunsaturated fats should choose
vegetable oils.
Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content?
Whole-grain
What is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?
Glycogen
The usual pH of gastric juice is approximately
2.
Your roommate Bob has just come back from the doctor where he was subjected to a blood lipid profile analysis. The doctor provided him with dietary changes because the cholesterol results put him at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Which of the following results is consistent with the diagnosis?
Low HDL and high LDL
In vegetarians, the RDA is higher for
iron
Among the following, which would be the least effective method to control blood cholesterol levels?
Eat more insoluble fiber
What mineral is added to refined flours in the enrichment process?
Iron
What percentage of the world’s adult population shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion?
30
Gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy?
Fats
What substance protects the stomach lining from damage due to digestive juices?
Mucus
Which of the following is not a simple carbohydrate?
Starch
Oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from
cis to trans.
Greg is trying to decide which brand of cereal to buy, but he is a somewhat confused by the health claims. Which of the following represents the highest level of significant scientific agreement?
“This product contains whole grains which have been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers”
What is the benefit of using controls in an experiment?
The subjects are similar in all respects except for the treatment being tested
Which of the following represents the usual sequence of stages in the development of a nutrient deficiency resulting from inadequate intake?
Declining nutrient stores, abnormal functions within the body, and overt signs
The intestinal flora are comprised primarily of
bacteria.
A person with chronic diarrhea is at risk for which of the following?
Dehydration
In which form are most dietary lipids found?
Triglycerides
Which of the following is an alternative choice for meats in the USDA Food Guide?
Nuts
Which of the following represents a food choice based on negative association?
An elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because he deems it a child’s food
What is the composition of sucrose?
One glucose and one fructose unit
According to nutrition labeling laws, what two minerals must be listed on the package label as percent Daily Value?
Calcium and Iron
The purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to
raise the pH of chyme.
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
Daily Values.
What is the primary function of insulin?
Lowers blood glucose levels
Which of the following cannot be found in plants?
Cholesterol
Who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information?
Registered dietitian
The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally
designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people.
Which of the following is not a typical component of stools?
Starch
When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
Glucagon
A person who regularly consumes fish such as shark, king mackerel, and swordfish is at risk for ingesting potentially toxic amounts of
mercury.
Which of the following is best known to result from regular ingestion of sugar?
Dental caries
The most highly fortified foods on the market are
breakfast cereals.
As a registered dietitian at Jones Hospital, you are instructed to write a policy statement on nutrition assessment procedures for all new patients. Which of the following are the most useful parameters for the nutrition assessment of individuals?
Historical information, anthropometric data, physical examinations, laboratory tests
A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of
high-density lipoproteins
What is the normal pH of stomach juice?
1.5-1.7
According to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day’s total energy intake should be furnished by carbohydrates?
45-65
What are the principles of diet planning?
Adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
Information that must be lawfully provided on food labels includes all of the following except
the amount recommended for ingestion each day.
What is the name given to partially digested food in the stomach?
Chyme
Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?
Synthesized by the body
All of the following are classified as macronutrients except
calcium
Which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?
The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease
What protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing?
Collagen
What primary factor governs the quality of a food protein?
Essential amino acid content
Jim, a college baseball player, tells you that he has started to take glutamine supplements. How would you advise him?
Since single amino acids do not occur naturally in foods, they offer no benefit to the body and may even be harmful
When nitrogen taken into the body exceeds nitrogen losses, we say the person is in
positive nitrogen balance.
Which of the following statements is not characteristic of enzymes?
They are involved in synthesis reactions only
What element is found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats?
Nitrogen
If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?
Protein synthesis will be limited
A common genetic variation which causes a change in the amino acid sequence in the structure of hemoglobin leads to the disease
sickle-cell anemia.
All of the following are features of protein in nutrition except
most of the body’s thousands of proteins have been studied and characterized
If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?
Protein synthesis will be limited
Which of the following is a feature of an essential amino acid?
It must be supplied by the diet
Which of the following do(es) not function as a transport protein?
Collagen
What is the Daily Value for protein based on a 2000-kcalorie intake?
50 g
Which of the following is a consequence of excess protein intake?
Increased production and excretion of urea
What ratio (mg:g) of calcium to protein intake is believed to promote optimal bone health?
20:1
Dietary restriction of phenylalanine combined with adequate tyrosine is the usual treatment for people born with the disorder
PKU.
What is the percentage of total energy derived from protein in a diet containing 50 grams of protein and 2000 kcalories?
10
Excessive amounts of homocysteine in the blood are thought to increase the risk for
heart disease.
What primary factor governs the quality of a food protein?
Essential amino acid content
Which of the following statements is not characteristic of enzymes?
They are involved in synthesis reactions only
What is the range of daily protein intake, in g/kg, recommended for athletes?
1.2-1.7
In addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates?
Water and carbon dioxide
Which of the following is a feature of the metabolism of surplus dietary fat?
Excess fat is almost all stored
An aerobic reaction is one that requires
oxygen.
After the first day or so of fasting, which of the following is most depleted in the body?
Glycogen
The amount of ethanol in a typical “drink” is
0.5 ounce.
What is the percentage of ethanol in 120-proof scotch whiskey?
60
Which of the following outlines the overall sequence of events in the complete oxidation of glucose?
Glycolysis, TCA cycle, electron transport chain
After digestion and absorption, an amino acid not used to build protein will first be subjected to
removal of its amino group
Which of the following products is not generated via the TCA cycle or electron transport chain?
Ammonia
Which of the following describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells?
Metabolism
Which of the following defines a coenzyme?
An organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
Which of the following is a feature of the metabolism of surplus dietary fat?
Excess fat is almost all stored
An aerobic reaction is one that requires
oxygen.
Which of the following defines a moderate level of alcohol intake per day for the average-sized woman?
Up to 1 drink
After the first day or so of fasting, which of the following is most depleted in the body?
Glycogen
In addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates?
Water and carbon dioxide
After digestion and absorption, an amino acid not used to build protein will first be subjected to
removal of its amino group.
Which of the following products is not generated via the TCA cycle or electron transport chain?
Ammonia
Which of the following describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells?
Metabolism
Which of the following defines a coenzyme?
An organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
Which of the following is a feature of the metabolism of surplus dietary fat?
Excess fat is almost all stored
An aerobic reaction is one that requires
oxygen.
Which of the following defines a moderate level of alcohol intake per day for the average-sized woman?
Up to 1 drink
After the first day or so of fasting, which of the following is most depleted in the body?
Glycogen
In addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates?
Water and carbon dioxide
Which of the following defines a coenzyme?
An organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
The amount of ethanol in a typical “drink” is
0.5 ounce.
A feature of catabolic reactions is that they
involve release of energy
What is the primary organ that oxidizes alcohol?
Liver
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are generated from the complete oxidation of one molecule glucose?
32
Which of the following accounts for the higher energy density of a fatty acid compared with the other energy-yielding nutrients?
Fatty acids have a greater percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds
In the average healthy person, about how much time is required by the liver to process the alcohol in a typical drink?
1 hour
In the adult body, food energy not stored as fat or glycogen is lost as
heat
Which of the following products is not generated via the TCA cycle or electron transport chain?
Ammonia