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93 Cards in this Set

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Viruses
a non-cellular infectious agent made of DNA or RNA, a protein coat and, in some cases an outer liquid envelope
Two types of Genetic material found in viruses
Some viruses have DNA as their genetic material and others have RNA
The five basic steps of viral multiplication
Attachment, penetration, replication and synthesis, assembly and release
Lysogenic pathway
Viral replication pathway in which viral DNA combines with the host DNA; as the hose cell replicates, so does the viral DNA, resulting in new cells with viral DNA. After exposure to some stimulus, the viral DNA is removed form the hose DNA, and lytic pathway begins. Thus the virus does not kill the host outrighr; a time delay occurs between infection and the assemblage of viral components during which many cells are created that also contain the virus
Lytic pathway
pathway of rapid viral relication. viral DNA directs the host cellular machinery to produce viral proteins and viral DNA and assemble the viral components into complete viruses. teh cell is eventually lysed by viral enzymes, resulting in celluar death and the release of new viruses
Prokaryotes
organisms that hve no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. prokaryotes are eubacteria and archaebacteria
Photoautotrophs
organisms that are able to make their own food through photosynthesis
chemoautotrophs
organisms that are able to make their own food by using energy form the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as H2S and H2
Fungi
multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that are non-motile and heterotrophic. they play and important role in nutrient cycling by being decomposers
Hypha
the tiny filaments that make up the body of a fungus (the mycelium). hyphal cells are interconnected to allow unimpeded nutrient flow within and through the mycelium
Mycelium
a newtwork of hyphae, the food-absorbing portion of most fungi. this is not the same things as the fruiting body of a fungus (e.g. a mushroom)
Extracellular digestion and absorption
secretion of enzyme into the environment to digest food and subsequent absorption of organic compounds into cells. this the way fungi digest and absorb food
mushrooms
the fruiting or reproductive part of a type of fungi
Measles virus
spherical
a rabies virus
rod or bullet shaped
a herpes virus
spherical
a tobacco mosaic virus
long rods
a bacteriophage (a virus that attacks bacteria)
looks like a tiny rocketship
Chicken pox
human herpes virus 3
ebola
filoviruses
measeles
paramyxoviruses
rabies
rhabdovirus
small pox
variola virus
mononucleosis
epstein-Barr virus
Aids
HIV- human immunodeficiency virus
Influenza
influenza virus
common cold
Rhinoviruses
Coccus
Spherical-shaped
bacillus
rod-shaped
spirillum
spiral-shaped
Escherichia coli
rod or cylinder shape- Bacillus
Staphylococcus aureaus
round- coccus
Rhodospirillum rubrum
s-shaped- spriullum
anthrax
bacillus anthracis
cholera
vibrio cholerae
chlamydia
clamydia trachomatis
plague
yersinia pestis
peptic ulcers
heliobacter pylori
botulism
clostridium botulinum
tetanus
clostridium tetanus
lyme disease
Borellia burgdorferi
brown algae
mostly marine photoautotrophic protistans such as kelp
green algae
photoautotrophic protistans that are found both in marine and freshwater
red algae
type of photoautotrophic protistans that are mostly multicellular and aquatic
Plankton
mostly microscopic organisms that are found in aquatic habitats
Lichens
symbiotic interactions between a fungus and a green alga or a cyanobacterium
Haploid
having hhalf of the parental number of chomosomes in a cell (spores and gametes)
Diploid
having two of each type of chromosomes
Bryophyte
nonvascular land plants
gymnosperm
vascular plants that have seeds but no flowers
angiosperm
vascular plants that have flowers and seeds
gametophyte
the haploid gamete-producing form of plants
sporophye
the diploid spore-producing form of plants
spore
a single haploid cell that is resistant to unfavorable enviornmental conditions, it is the first cell of the gametophyte generation
microspore
haploid spores that become pollen grain in gymnosperms and angiosperms, it is very small
megaspore
a megaspoer is a haploid spoer one of whose cellular descendants develops into an egg in gymnosperms and angiospersm. it is much larger than the microspore
vascular plant
plants that be vascular tissue called xylem and phloem
fern
seedless vascular plants of moist or wet habitats
moss
a common kind of bryophyte
cuticle
the body cover of plants, a waxy covering on leaves and shoots that helps keep water in and infectious agents (bacteris and fungi) out
eudicot
flowering plant characterized by embyros with two cotyledons (seed leaves), leaves with their veins in a net pattern and floral parts arranged in multiples of four or five
monocot
flowering plant with one cotyledon, floral parts in multiples of three and parallel-veined leaves
epidermis
outermost layer of cells
cortex
the tissue that makes up most of a stem or root, bounded extrenally by the epidermis and internally by the central cylinder of vascular tissue
endodermis
cell layer around root vascular cylinder; influences water and solute uptake into xylem
germination
the resumption of growht and development by a spore or seed
meristem
a zone of unspecialized cells whose funcion is to divide to give rise to cell lineages that form the mature tisse. essentially meristems are regions of active growth
ovary
the enlarged base of one or more carpels
ovules
tissue in plant ovary that become a seed, a female gametophyte will egg cell, nutritious tissue and a jacket that will become the seed coat
carpel
female reporductive part of a flower that encloses one or more ovules
endosperm
nutritive tisse inside the seed. this is what the growing plant embyro uses for food before it can photosynthesize on its own
phoem
plant vascular tissue interconnected as conducting tubes for the movement of sugars and other solutes
xylem
plant vascular tissue interconnected as conducting tubes for the movement of water and other solutes (mineral nutrients such as nitrogen) up the plant from the ground to the leaves
coevolution
joint evolution of two closely interacting species by changes in the selection pressures operating between the two
Gibberellin
plant hormone; promotes elongation of stems, helps seeds and buds break dormancy and helps flowering
gravitropism
a change in direction of growth of plant tissue in response to gravity
phototropism
a change in direction of growth of plant tissue in response to light
pollination
arrival of pollen grain on the stigma of a flowers carpel
cohesion-tension theory
in a response transpiration, colums of water are pulled up through xylem by the collective cohesive strength of hydrogen bonds between water molecules
transpiration
evaporative loss of water on the surface of the plant, especially the leaves
gas exchange
where gases are publicly traded, movement of gases (H2O, CO2, and O2) in and out of the leaf via the stomata
Tracheids
one of two types of cells in xylem that conduct water and minerals
vessel member
a type of cell xylem; dead at maturity, but its wall becomes part of the water-conducting pipeline
Stoms (singular) and stomata (plural)
a gap between two guard cell on a leaf surface through which water diffueses out of the leaf and gaseous diffusion occurs (CO2 diffuses in, O2 and H2O diffuse out)
cuticle
a transparent covering of waxes and cutin on the outside of the leaf epidermal cells
Guard cells
on of two adjoining cells degining a stoma. the guard cells control the opening size of the stoma
cohesion
the ability to stay together under tension. typically this refers to molecules of the same kind sticking together (water molecules being held together via hydrogen bonds)
diffusion
net movement of molecules down a concentration gradient
Osmosis
the diffusion water across a selectively permeable membrane
Pressure-flow model
organic compounds flow through phloem in response to pressure and concentration and pressure gradients between the source (leaves) and the sinks
sieve tube
phloems sugar-conducting tube
nitrogen fixation
the conversion of gaseous nitrogen (generally consider a form of nitrogen that is not available to plants) to ammonium (which is usable by plants) by bacteria
root nodules
swelling on the roots of certain legumes resulting formt he infection of nitrogen-fixing bacteria