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41 Cards in this Set

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2 Reasons why cell diveide rather than grow indefinatly?
-there are more demands on DNA
-problems with moving nutrients around
What determines the rate at which food and oxygen are used up
-Cells volume
Does cell volume grown more rapidley than suface area?
yes
Cell Division
process by whcih cells divide and reproduce
How does cell division solve the problem of increading in size?
reduces cell volume
How can you obtian a cells ratio of surface area to volume?
Dive surface area by volume
Chromosomes are not visibel in most cells except during cell division
true
When chromosomes become visible at the beginning of cell dvisiion, whjat does each chromosome consist of>
Two identical sister chromatin
Each pair of chromatids is attached at an area called the
centro mere
The period of growth in between cell divsion is called
interphase
What is the cell cycle?
the series of events in which cells go through-life of a cell
The division of the cell nucleus during the M phase of the cell cycle is called
mitosis
Interphase is divided into what three phases?
G-1 S and G-2
What happens during the G-1 phase?
cells do most of their growing
What happens during the S phase
chromosomes are replicated
What are the four phases of Mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anapahase, telaphase
Centrioles
two tiny structures located int eh cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope at the beginning of prophase
What is the spindle
a fan like micro tubular structure to help seperate chromosomes
Prophase
The chromosomes become visible and the centriols take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus
Metaphase
The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase
The chromosomes move until they form two groupls near the poles of the spindle
Telophase
The nucleolus becomes visible in each doaughter nucleus and a nuclear envelope re-forms around each cluster of chromosomes
Cytokinesis
division of cytoplasm
How does cytokinesis occur in most animal cells?
pinching off of two big cells
What forms midway between the divided nuclus during cytokinesis in plant cells?
Cell plate
Chromatid
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
Chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus, consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
Chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed form one generation of cells to the next
Cyclins
regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
Centrioles
two tiny structures loacted in
the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
How do prokaryotic cells reproduce?
Fission
What are cells that result from cell division called?
daughter cells
Plant cell compared with an animal cell
Plant Cell- no centrioles and cell plates cut cells in half

Animal Cell- furrow divides cell in half
Internal Regulators
proteins that control events with in cell to ensure correct sequence
External Regulators
proteins respond to events outside the cell-speed up slow down cell cycles- growth regulators
Gene p53
halts cell cycle until chromosomes are properly replicated-defect in gene is cancer
G-0 phase
just prior to the S phase- time out phase- cells divide which course to fallow
Somatic Cell
body cell
What dictates how many times a cell divides
telomeres-
exception is sperm, cancer, egg, bone marrow
Chemical Factors that influence cell growth
cyclins, hormones, local growth factor
Telomerase
an enzyme that keeps telomers long in same cell