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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
scientific method steps
identify problem
research problem
form hypothesis
test hypothesis
observe and record data
state conclusion
educated guess
hypothesis
hypothesis well tested and supported by a range of observations
theory
using one of the senses to gather information
observation
things that remain unchanged in a situation
control
polar molecule
uneven distribution of electrons
nonpolar molecule
even distribution of electrons
Why do oil and water not mix?
oil is nonpolar and hydrophobic
water is polar
attraction between molecules of the same substance
cohesion
attraction between molecules of different substances
adhesion
prevents surface of water from stretching or breaking
surface tension
active site is altered slightly so substrate can fit more snugly
induced fit model of an enzyme
where the substrate binds
active site
molecules that bind to the active site
substrate
unravels, loses shape and is no longer functional
denatures
characteristics of life
cells
reproduce
metabolism
heredity
homeostasis
respond
evolution
purpose of a microscope
to examine materials usually invisible to the naked eye
nucleus- where and function
center of cell
holds DNA
prokaryotic cell
no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, mainly bacteria
eukaryotic cell
nucleus, membrane bound organelles, mainly plants and animals
animal cell
many small vacuoles
only cell membrane
no chloroplasts
must consume food
have centrioles
plant cell
1-3 large vacuoles
cell membrane and cell wall
chloroplasts
make own food
lack centrioles
cell specialization
cells perform only certain tasks
cell membrane composition
phospholipid bilayer
proteins- carrier, channel, signalling
cell membrane function
to allow certain molecules to enter and exit the cell
embedded in cell membrane
have a pore for material to cross
channel proteins
can change shape to transport materials from one side of the cell membrane to the other
carrier proteins
has specific shape to bond with certain molecules (hormones) which cause a chemical reaction within the cell
receptor protein
movement of water across a membrane from high to low concentration
osmosis
movement of small molecules from high to low concentration
diffusion
material being dissolved
solute
material doing the dissolving
solvent
the state when the concentration of molecules is the same all through a given space
equilibrium
water leaves the cell and cell membrane shrinks away from the cell wall
result of being hypertonic
plasmolysis
membrane sac
vesicle
cell takes in material from the outside and forms a vesicle around the material
endocytosis
the taking in or movement of solids or fluids
pinocytosis
the movement of very large particles or whole cells
phagocytosis
cell releases materials outside the cell by joining a vesicle to the membrane and opening up, releasing the contents
exocytosis
ATP- what is it, how does it release energy?
energy releasing molecule
releases energy when 3rd phosphorous bond is broken
limit to cell size- why?
cell membrane can only get to a certain size
will then either lyse or divide
moves nutrients from one cell to another in a plant
phloem
moves water from roots to upper branches in a plant
xylem
purpose of light dependent reaction
to produce ATP and NADPH
purpose of Calvin cycle
to turn H20 and CO2 into glucose
splitting of water
photolysis
affects rate of photosynthesis?
light intensity
CO2 concentration
temperature
location of photosynthesis
chloroplasts
requires oxygen
aerobic
does not require oxygen
anaerobic
location of cellular respiration
cytoplasm and mitochondria
requirement of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration
pyruvic acid
organisms that make their own food
need CO2 to survive
plants and some bacteria
autotrophs
organisms that must consume food
need O2 to survive
animals
heterotrophs
chromosones containing DNA and protein
chromatid
DNA tightly coiled around proteins
chromatin
proteins around which DNA is coiled
histones
held together by 3 hydrogen bonds
guanine and cytosine
held together by 2 hydrogen bonds
adenine and thymine
made of 5 carbon sugar (ribose), a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
monomer of DNA
nucleotide
nitrogen-containing
nitrogenous
nitrogenous base containing one ring
pyridine
nitrogenous base containing two rings
purine
shape of DNA
double helix
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
causes protein to code differently because different bases are inserted into the DNA
mutation
steps of DNA replication
DNA unzips
nucleotides attach to their complement
results in two identical strands of DNA
breaks hydrogen bonds betweeen complementary base pairs
helicase
attaches complimentary base pairs
DNA polymerase
origins for replication
replication forks
used in transcription of RNA
single-stranded
contains genetic code
messenger RNA
used in translation of RNA
blob shaped
ribosomal RNA
carries amino acids
pin shaped
transfer RNA
ribonucleic acid
synthesis of proteins
RNA
steps of transcription
RNA polymerase binds to DNA and seperates the DNA strands
RNA polymerase uses one strand of DNA as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA all come together
initiation- step one of translation
tRNAs add their amino acids, codon by codon
elongation- step two of translation
stop codon is recognized and complete protein is released
termination- step three of translation
concentratrion of water is higher inside the cell
hypotonic
concentration of solutes is higher inside the cell
hypertonic
concentration of water and solutes are equal both inside and outside the cell
isotonic
function of carbohydrates
immediate source of energy to the cells
function of lipids
cell membranes
cell messengers
insulation
long term energy storage
function of proteins
chemical reactions
defense
motion
signals
support
transport
function of nucleic acids
stores and transfers genetic information to make proteins
protein synthesis
whiplike structure used in cell movement (on sperm)
flagella
short hairlike structure used in cell movement (in throat)
cilia
projection of cytoplasm and following of cell, used in cell movement (pseudopod)
amoeboid