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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
S phase
DNA is copied
G2
cell awaits division
Interphase
G1, S, G2
Prophase
chromosomes condense, spindle fibers form, nucleus disappears
Metaphase
chromosomes line up at equator
Anaphase
chromosomes separate
Telophase
cell membrane pinches in, chromosomes all on opposite sides of cell
Synapsis
Homologous chromosomes pair up
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
hypotonic solution
more water outside of cell
hypertonic solution
less water outside of cell
isotonic solution
equilibrium, movement of water into and out of cell, same amount on either side
Lactic Acid Fermentation
pyruvic acid to lactic acid
occurs when no oxygen present after glycolysis
Proteins
example and function
enzymes- control metabolic reactions, structural support
anabolic reaction
simple + simple to complex
catabolic reaction
complex to simple + simple
endocytosis
Process of bringing materials into cell, requires energy
Exocytosis
process of releasing materials out of cell, requires energy
Osmosis
passive transport, movement of water across cell membrane from high water conc. to low water conc.
Diffusion
passive transport, movement of molecules from area of high concentration to area of low concentration
Facilitated diffusion
passive transport from high conc. to low, with assistance of carrier proteins
Phospholipid
makes up cell membrane, polar head, non polar tail
Active transport
Transport across concentration gradient, requires energy
Passive Transport
transport down concentration gradient, does not require cell energy
Solute
substance that dissolves in another
Solvent
liquid that solutes dissolve in
Neurotransmitters
chemicals used for communication between nerve cells
cytolysis
cell bursts
plasmolysis
cell shrinks
enzymes
proteins, used to catalyze reactions, lower activation energy
substrate
substance that an enzyme acts on, attaches to substrate at active site
ATP
adenosine triphosphate, store energy in bond of third phosphate
coenzyme
assists enzymes in controlling reactions, vitamins
Aerobic respiration
glycolysis,respiration, ETC, produces ATP
Alcoholic Fermentation
pyruvic acid-->alcohol + CO2
occurs after glycolysis when no oxygen present, ex. yeast
Mitosis
division of diploid cells = 2 diploid daughter cells
Meiosis
division of diploid cell= 4 haploid cells, (meiosis I and meiosis II)
Sex chromosomes
X and Y
Autosomes
all chromosomes besides sex chromosomes, in a human body cell = 44
Down syndrome
Trisomy- 21, when an individual has an extra 21st chromosome
amniocentesis
procedure that analyzes fluid in sac that surrounds around fetus
karyotype
layout of an individuals chromosomes, each homologous chromosome pair together
Binary fission
cell division in prokaryotes, results in 2 identical cells
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm
G1
cell grows to mature size
Atoms
make up all living and nonliving things
Element
substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Ion
charged particle
What are the three particles in an atom?
Proton (+), Neutron, Electron(-)
Compound
group of atoms held together by chemical bonds
Hydrogen bond
weakest chemical bond
Ionic bond
formed between two ions of opposite charges
Covalent bond
when atoms share electrons
Base
substance with a pH between 7-14
ex. ammonia
Acid
substance with a pH between 0-7
ex. lemon juice, stomach acid
Carbohydrate
(example and function)
cellulose, glycogen, glucose, starch
energy storage
Lipids
examples and function
fats, oils, steroids, waxes
structural support, energy storage
Nucleic Acids
example and function
DNA, RNA
store hereditary information
Robert Hooke
first looked at cells- cork
Schlieden, Schwann, and Virchow
developed the cell theory
Cell Theory
1. cells arise from existing cells
2.cells are basic unit of function and structure
3. all living things made of cells
Eukaryotes
have true nucleus, divide by mitosis and meiosis
Prokaryotes
no nucleus, one ring of DNA
divide by binary fission
evolved to form eukaryotes
Nucleus
control center of cell
Mitochondria
powerhouse of cell, respiration occurs here
Vacuole
stores water, food, wastes; larger in plant cells
Golgi Apparatus
packaging and storage of materials
Lysosomes
contains digestive enzymes
Cilia
short bristly hairs, used for movement, made of microtubules
Flagella
long extensions of cell membrane, made of microtubules, used for movement
cell membrane
composed of phospholipids and proteins, found in plant and animal cells, selectively permeable
Cell Wall
only in plant cell, contains cellulose, used for structural support
Ribosomes
site of protein synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum
transport system in cell, with ribosomes = rough ER
without ribosomes= smooth ER
Chloroplasts
site of photosynthesis, in plant cells, contains chlorophyll, are green
Scanning tunneling microscope
can view live specimens
Transmission electron microscope
high magnification and resolution, send electrons through sample
Scanning electron microscope
view specimen in 3-D
In order, state the steps of the scientific method.
observations, hypothesis, experiments, conclusion, theory
Biology
study of life