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167 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
"Biology of sex" is all except
a) behavioral studies
b) social studies
c) everything from a to z (anthropology to zoology).
d) it is all of these.
d. it is all of these.
sex was invented __ years ago by ___.
2? billion years ago by bacteria
the __system is associated with the 4 basic drives , and is overlaid and modified by the __ ___ ( ).
the limbic system; cerebral cortex(reasoning).
What are 3 hypotheses for why sex exists?
DNA repair
the Tangled Bank (Williams/Ghiselin)
The Red Queen (Van Valen)
What are the advantages of asexual reproduction?
•• no searching for a partnerno searching for a partner •• no competitionno competition for mates with others of your sex for mates with others of your sex•• reproduction is guaranteed reproduction is guaranteed•• offspring are offspring are just like you - genetic fitnessjust like you - genetic fitness •• desirable traits not diluted out by breeding desirable traits not diluted out by breeding
What are the disadvantages of asexual reproduction?
•• slow plodding evolutionary pace slow plodding evolutionary pace •• undesirable traits not diluted out by breedingundesirable traits not diluted out by breeding•• doesn doesn’’t mix up the gene poolt mix up the gene pool•• reduced coping capacityreduced coping capacity of the populationof the population •• your population can be decimated your population can be decimated underunder stress
___ and ___ drive genetic variation.
sex and mutation
organisms with mixed __ survive better.
genes
mutation: low level can be ___, high level can be ___.
adaptive, fatal
___hypothesizes that once there are 2 types of gametes that have specialized into large genetically costly nutritional support(egg) & small energetically cheap for insemination (sperm) that you automatically have _________________________________________.
the sexual characteristics that favor success of one gamete over the other.
Optimum characteristics of each sex for their reproductive role are not just ___ and ___, but are also linked to ___.
anatomy & physiology; but also behavior.
A hermaphrodite gene that favored spreading sperm rather than growing babies would increase genetic fitness of the carrier by allowing for more ___.
reproduction
___ says "it may be better to leave some genetic mistakes as is and correct them later" in "The Advantage of Sex"
Kondrashov
sex can perhaps play a role in ____mutations.
purging
The main defect in Kondrashov's hypothesis is that ____. Pitted against a clone of asexual individuals, a sexual population must inevitably be driven ____ by the clone's greater productivity, unless the clone's ____ ___ can appear in time.
it works too slowly; extinct; genetic drawbacks.
The __ ___ hypothesis of the importance of sex is a reference to Lewis Carrol's Alice in Wonderland.
Red Queen
The Red Queen hypothesis is simple: sex is needed to ___ ____.
fight disease.
___ invent new keys, ___ change the locks.
Parasites; Hosts
Sexual species can call on a "library"of locks unavailable to asexual species. The library is defined by 2 terms: ___ and __.
heterozygosity and polymorphism
Heterozygosity and polymorphism are lost when a ___ becomes inbred.
lineage
In the case of sicke cell, the sickle cell helps to defeat ___.
malaria
Where malaria is concerned, the ___ are better off than the ___.
heterozygotes; homozygotes.
In a game between sex and "asex," ___ always wins--other things being equal.
"asex" (asexual reproduction).
___ is common in species that are little troubled by disease.
asexual reproduction
The best test of the Red Queen Hypothesis was a study by ___ and __.
Lively and Vrijenhoeck
Perpetually transient, life is a ___, not a ladder.
treadmill
30,000 years of evolution has provided for higher order control of __/___.
societal/personal.
Genetic information is ____ over time.
preserved.
____ gene hypothesis: "Our" genes build and maintain us in order to create more genes.
"Selfish" gene hypothesis
___ ___ is necessary to stay alive long enough to make fresh copies.
Self-Preservation
What organism preserves their future by dying?
The Praying Mantis
The " ___ reproduction" of Pacific Salmon: devotes years to staying alive, then committs suicide in efforts to reproduce.
"Kamikaze Reproduction"
___s are the ultimate environment manipulators, but are also ___creatures.
humans; biological
Without ___ to pass on its genes, an individual doesn't pass them onto the next generation.
instinct
___ is NOT synonomous with sex.
reproduction
Asexual reproduction can occur by __ , ___, or ___ of the organism.
fission, budding, or cloning of the organism.
Lion ___ (male/females) make the ULTIMATE sacrifice.
Lion males make the ultimate sacrifice.
In certain types of spiders, the ___(spider) takes his life for the sake of sex.
Male spider risks his life for the sake of sex.
In certain fish types, ___ compete for the chance to fertilize females' eggs.
Male fish.
The individuals that carry the fishs' genes live for only ____(duration).

a) 5 years
b) 2-3 years
c)10 years
d)2 weeks
only a few years. (2-3 yrs).
How do Sea Anenomes reproduce? Asexual or Sexual Reproduction?
Asexual
In which species is the female fully equipped to reproduce on her own?
Gecco
There are no MALES in the ___species.
Gecco
The bird species called ____enngages in a type of dance before mating by ____.
Albatross; hitting their beaks together. (male and female).
Sex evolved __years ago.

a) 2million
b)5billion
c)2 billion
d)800,000
2 billion yrs. ago
2 billion years ago,there also existed cells and eggs. The ___ were better at mating, and the ___ were more easily found.
cells; eggs
In Australia's Great Barrier Reef, some animals are ____-they need new gened to fertize their own.
Hermaphrodites
Each____tries to be male.
Flatworm
For the ___species, it is relatively cheap and easy for MALES to spread their genes.
Flatworm
In Venezuela, the ____ is 18 feet long and weighs more than 200 lbs.
Anaconda
___females pick males based on their territories.
Iguana
Iguanas eat ___ ___.
fresh seaweed.
How do female Iguanas pick their mate?
The female Iguanas observe a crowd of male Iguanas to choose the best one.
___put an enormous value on their gaudy appearance.
Birds
Sometimes bids' bright colors indicate a ___ ___.
healthy diet.
Some female birds search for multiple mating partners: t/f
True
An example of a polygamous bird species is the ____ ____ ____.
Blue-Footed-Boobie.
The bonus of the ___'s affair (bird) is that the male ______________.
Blue-footed Boobie; the male won't have to raise the offspring that are not his.
The ___ butterfy's smell and "virgin presence" attract males.
Apollo
The male gives the female butterfly ____(species) a "chastity belt" so that she cannot mate with any other male. How does he do this?
Apollo; Male uses a Spike Plug.
Elephant-seals live in a ___-like environment.
Harlem-like
Which invading male animal will kill any cubs he finds?
Lion
by ___ ___, reproductive strategies are created to favor the strongest, smartest, best-adapted organisms.
"natural design"
___desire is built into EVERY organism.
sexual desire
Reproduction evolves through ____.
Competition
The cost of sex is lower for __ than ___.
cost of sex: lower for males than females.
DNA are found principally in the ___, which are found in the ___of the cell.
chromosomes; nucleus
Chromosomes, but not ___,can be seen with the light of a miscroscope.
chromatids
DNA is a type of ___ ___, and like all ___ ___s, it is formed by the sequential joining of molecules called nucleotides. .
nucleic acid; nucleic acid(s)
The sugar in DNA is ____.
Deoxyribose
DNA is ___-stranded.
double
___hydrogen bonds between the bases hold the DNA strands together.
weak
Each base is bonded to another particular base, an arrangement called ___-___ pairing.
Complementary-Base Pairing
A is always paired with ___; C with ___, and vice versa.
A with T; C with G, and vice versa.
Step #___ in DNA replication:
New nucleotides, always present in the nucleus, fit into place beside each old (parental) strand by the process of ___ ___ ___.
Step #2; Complementary-Base Pairing
The structure of DNA is said to resemble a ___. The sugar phosphate backbone makes up the __ ___ are the rungs.
ladder; sides; paired bases
___of DNA occurs as a part of chromosome duplication. ____is facilitated by the structure of DNA.
Replication
Step in DNA replication: The ___bonds between the 2 strands of DNA break as enzymes unwind and "unzip" the molecule.
hydrogen(bonds)
DNA replication:step #___.
The new nucleotides become joined an enzyme that is called ___ ___because it forms a DNA polymer (molecule).
Step #3; the DNA polymerase.
DNA replication: step #__.
___(#)complete DNA molecules are present, identical to each other and to the original molecule.
4; 2 complete DNA molecules
Each new molecule helix is composed of an___strand and a ___strand.
old (parental) strand and a new(daughter) strand.
Because each strand of DNA serves as a ___, or mold, for the production of a complementary strand, DNA replication is called ______.
template; semi-conservative
A replication error that persists is a ___, a permanent change in a gene that can cause a change in the phenotype.
mutation
___is made up of nucleotides containing the sugar ribose.
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
RNA is ___-stranded.
single-stranded
Sometimes with ___, complementary base pairing occurs.
RNA
In general, ___is a helper to DNA, allowing protein synthesis to occur according to the genetic info that DNA provides.
RNA
There are __types of RNA, each with a specific function in ___.
3; protein synthesis
In RNA, the base ___replaces the base ___.
Uracil replaces Thymine
Ribosomal RNA joins with proteins made in the ___to form the subunits of the ribosomes.
cytoplasm
In general, RNA is a helper to DNA, allowing __ ___ to occur according to the genetic information that DNA provides.
protein synthesis
___is produced in the nucleus, where DNA serves as a template for its fornation.
mRNA (messenger RNA)
Messenger RNA is a ___molecule.
linear
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is produced in the ___, and a portion of DNA also serves as a template for its production.
nucleus
tRNA transfers amino acids to the ____, where the amino acids are joined, forming a protein.
ribosomes
___(#) different types of amino acids are joined, forming a protein.
20
___(#)different types of amino acids make up proteins; therefore, at least ___(#) of tRNAs must be ___in the cell.
20; 20; functioning
Each type of tRNA carries only __type(s) of amino acid(s).
1
Transfer RNA is produced in the nucleus, and a portion of DNA also serves as a ____for its production.
template
Each type of tRNA carries only 1 type of __ ___.
amino acid.
DNA provides the cell with a ___for synthesizing proteins.
blueprint
DNA resides in the ___, and protein synthesis occurs in the ___.
nucleus; cytoplasm
mRNA carries a copy of DNA's blueprint into the ___ before protein synthesis occurs.
cytoplasm
__(#) different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, which are synthesized at the __in the cytoplasm of cells.
20; ribosomes
Proteins differ because the ___and___of their amino acids differ.
number and order
The ___of a protein helps to determine its function.
shape
The shape of a protein helps determine its __.
function
The protein ___is responsible for the red color of red blood cells.
hemoglobin
Albumins and Globulins (antibodies) are well-known ___proteins.
plasma
Muscle cells contain the proteins___and___, which give muscles substance and the ability to contract.
actin and myosin
Enzymes are___catalysts that speed reactions in cells.
organic catalysts
Enzymes are ___:(Enzyme E^A can only convert A to B; Enzyme E^B can only convert B to C, and so forth.
specific
The mental retardation seen in persons with Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by an inability to convert Phenylalanine to___.
Tyrosine
The lack of pigment in albinos is caused by an inability to convert ___ to ___.
tyrosine to melanin
DNA is found principally in the ___, which are located in the ___of a cell.
chromosomes; nucleus
___is the synthesis of a polypeptide (many amino acids) under the direction of an mRNA molecule.
Translation
at the other end of each tRNA is a specific ___, a group of three bases complementary to an mRNA codon.
anticodon
If the codon sequence is ACC, GUA, AAA, what will be the sequence of amino acids in a portion of the polypeptide?
UGG, CAU, UUU.
The steps of polypeptide synthesis are:
initiation, elongation, and termination
During ___, mRNA binds to the smaller of the two ribosomal subunits; then the larger subunit associates with the smaller one.
initiation
During ___, the polypeptide lengthens one amino acid at a time. The incoming amino acid complex receives the peptide from the outgoing tRNA. The ribosome then moves laterally so that the next mRNA codon is available to receive an oncoming tRNA.
elongation
___of synthesis occurs at a codon that means "stop" and does not code for an amino acid. The ribosome dissociates into its two subunits and falls off the mRNA molecule.
termination
A __ ___is a permanent change in the sequence of the bases in DNA.
genetic mutation
__mutations involve a change in a single DNA nucleotide, and therefore a change in a specific codon.
point mutations
___mutations occur most often because one or more nucleotides are either inserted or deleted from DNA.
frameshift mutations
The result of a ___mutation can be a completely new sequence of codons and nonfunctional proteins.
frameshift
Genetic disorders are often inborn errors of ___because the inheritance of a faulty genetic code leads to a defective enzyme.
metabolism
___ is one of the most common genetic disorders. At birth or later, the affected individual may have six or more large, tan spots on the skin. Such spots tend to increase in size and number and get darker. Small, benign tumors called ___ may arise from the fibrous coverings of the nerves.
Neurofibromatosis; neurofibromas
Neurofibromatosis is a(n) ___ dominant/recessive disorder.
Autosomal Dominant
____disease is a neurological disorder that leads to progressive degeneration of brain cells, which in turn causes severe muscle spasms and personality disorders.
Huntington Disease.
There is no effective treatment for the autosomal dominant diseae called ___ ___. Death comes 10 to 15 years after the onset of symptoms.
Huntington Disease.
Researchers hope they may be able to combat Huntington Disease by boosting ___levels.
CBP levels
__ ___is the most common lethal genetic disease among Caucasions in the United States. About one in 20 Caucasions is a carrier, and about one in 2,500 newborns has the disorder.
Cystic Fibrosis
___occurs once in 5,000 newborns, so it is not as common as cystic fibrosis. However, it is the most commonly inherited metabolic disorder that affects nervous system development.
Phenyletonuria
Those with Phenylketonuria must be placed on a diet low in phenylalanine, if, at birth, elevated phenylalanine levels are detected. This diet must be continued until around age 7, otherwise ________develops.
severe mental retardation
Cystic Fibrosis is a(n) ___ ___disorder.
Autosomal Recessive
___ ___disease is an ___ ___disease that usually occurs among Jewish people in the Unites States, most of whom are of central and eastern European descent.
Tay-Sachs disease; autosomal recessive
In __ __patients, the mucus in the bronchial tubes and pancreatic ducts is particularly thick and viscous. Chloride ions fail to pass through plasma membrane channel proteins in affected individuals.
Cystic Fibrosis
Tay-Sachs disease causes ___bewteen the ages of four and eight months. Most affected individuals die by the age of 3 or 4.
slowed development, neurological impairmennt and psychomotor difficulties, eventual blindness, uncontrollable seizures, and ultimately paralysis.
Albinism is a(n) __- ___ disorder.
Autosomal Recessive
Albinism is an example of an ___, in which a gene affects the expression of other genes.
epistasis
In an ablino, any genes received for coloring cannot be expressed because of the mutated gene that prevents them from producing ___.
melanin
When ___ is present, the individual is unable to produce the pigment melanin, which is responsible for coloration of the skin, hair, and/or eyes. ___s do not see well and their eyes are subject to involuntary rapid eye movements.
Albinism
Meiosis is a part of both ___, production of sperm, and __, production of eggs.
spermatogenesis; oogenesis
___ ___are products of oogenesis that contain chromosomes but little cytoplasm.
polar bodies
In humans, each gamete contibutes __(#) chromosomes.
23
___occurs during Meiosis I, when both members of a homologous pair go to the same daughter cell.
nondisjunction
When nondisjunction occurs during Meiosis II, sister chromatids fail to ___, and both daughter chromosomes go into the same daughter cell.
separate
A chromosomal ___is responsible for the syndrome cri du chat.
deletion
An infant with __ __ __ has a moon face, a small head, and a cry that sounds like the meow of a cat because of a malformed larynx; an older child has an eyelid fold and misshapen ears placed low on the head. Severe mental retardation later becomes evident.
cri du chat syndrome
A person with __syndrome is born a female.(XO)
turner syndrome
A person with __ syndrome is born a male.(XXY)
klinefelter syndrome
___females are short, with a broad chest and folds of skin on the back of the neck. The ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus are small and underdeveloped.
turner
___females do not undergo puberty or menstruate, and their breats do not develop.
turner
Males with __syndrome are usually taller than average, suffer from persistent acne, and tend to have speech and reading problems.
jacobs syndrome
A __comes into existence when a __sperm fertilizes a __egg.
zygote; haploid; haploid
Each parent contributes 1 chromosome of each type to a zygote, which then has the __number of chromosomes.
diploid
In mitosis, each chromosme has duplicated and is composed of 2 sister chromatids held together at a ___.
centromere.
At the completion of mitosis, each chromosome consists of a single ___.
chromatid
___occurs in humans when tissues grow or when repair occurs.
mitosis
What are the stages of Mitosis, in order?
Interphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
During ___chromosomes are randomly placed in the nucleus.
prophase
___is characterized by a fully formed spindle, and the chromosomes, each with 2 sister chromatids, aligned at the equator.
Metaphase
___is characterized by the diploid number of chromosomes moving toward the spindle.
Anaphase
___is characterized by the formation of 2 daughter nuclei.
Telophase
___is the division of the cytoplasm and organelles. In animal cells, a slight identification called a __ __ passes around the circumference of the cell.
cytokinesis; cleavage furrow
___is often called reduction division.
Meiosis