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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Basic Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
1) Mouth
2) Esophagus
3) Stomach
4) Small Intestine(duodenum, ileum, jejunum)
5)Large Intestine(ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon)
6) Rectum
7) Anus
Contained in the saliva, breaks down starch into polysaccarides.
Purpose of Saliva
Acts to lubricate the food to help it move down the esophagus
T or F: Digestion occurs in the esophagus
The Stomach
-Very flexible pouch that both mixes and stores food, reducing it to a semifluid mass called chyme.
-Contains exocrine glands
-Begins protein digestion w/ enzyme pepsin (low ph of stomach assists this process, as well as killing bacteria)
Four Major Cell Types in Stomach
1) Mucous Cells
2) Chief (peptic) cells
3) Parietal Cells
4) G cells
Mucous Cells
-Secrete Mucus
-Cells line the stomach wall and necks of the exocrine glands.
-Mucus is composed of sticky glycoprotein and electrolytes, and lubricates the stomach wall
Chief Cells
-Found deep in exocrine glands
-Secrete Pepsinogen (zymogen precursor to pepsin)
Parietal Cells
-Found in exocrine glands of stomach
-Secrete HCl, which diffuses to lumen (net result = lowers pH of stomach and raises pH of blood)
G cells
-Secrete gastrin(hormone) into the interstitium, which is absorbed into the blood and stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCl
Major hormones that affect the secretion of the stomach juices are:
1) acetylcholine
2) gastrin
3) histamine
T or F: About 50% of the digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine
False: 90%
-Form the outermost layer of the small intestine
-Increase the surface area of the intestinal wall allowing for greater digestion and absorption
-Within each villus = capillary network and a lacteal (lymph vessel)
-Finger-like projections on the lumen side of each villus
-Increase the surface area of the intestinal wall still further
-"Brush Border" contains enzymes that digest everything
Goblet Cells
-Epithelial cells covering the microvilli; secrete mucus to protect the brush border from mechanical and chemical damage.
Crypts of Lieberkuhn
-Located deep w/in the villi in the small intestine
-Secrete an intestinal juice w/ a pH of 7.6 and lysozyme
Why does the fluid inside the duodenum have a pH of 6?
Because of the bicarbonate ion secreted by the pancreas.
The Pancreas in relation to the small intestine:
-Pancreas acts as an exocrine gland, releasing enzymes into the duodenum:
1) trypsin
2) chymotrypsin
3) pancreatic amylase
4) lipase
5) ribonuclease
6) deoxyribonuclease
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin
-Released by the pancreas
-Degrade proteins into small polypeptides
Pancreatic Amylase
-Released by the pancreas
-Hydrolyzes polysaccharides to disaccharides and trisaccharides
-Released by the pancreas
-Degrades fat (triglycerides)
-Produced in the liver and stored in gall bladder
-Emulsifies fat (breaks into smaller particles w/out changing it chemically) - allows lipase to more efficiently degrade it
The Major Functions of The Large Intestine:
-Water absorption, electrolyte absorption
-Also contains e-coli, which live off our leftover, and we get vitamins from them
Gastrointestinal Hormones
-Regulate the digestive system so we can eat a large amount of food at a single time, and take a long time to digest it.
Disaccharide made from glucose and fructose
Disaccharide made from glucose and galactose
Role of the liver in producing carbohydrates
When the glycogen stores are full, the glucose is converted to fat, a long-term form of energy storage. The conversion of glucose to fat takes place in the liver and is stored in the fat cells.
Virtually ALL dietary protein is completely broken down to its amino acids ________ being absorbed into the ________.
before, blood
Fat is _________ in water, so it typically requires a ________, such as __________.
insoluble, carrier, lipoprotein/albumin
ALL functions of the LIVER
1) blood storage
2) blood filtration
3) carbohydrate metabolism
4) fat metabolism
5) protein metabolism
6) detoxification
7) erythrocyte destruction
8) vitamin storage (pg 132)
-When the liver mobilizes fat for energy, it produces acids called ketone bodies, this often results in a condition called ketosis
-When the liver mobilizes fat/protein for energy, the blood acidity INCREASES
Function of the Kidney
1) Excrete waste products, such as urea, uric acid, ammonia, and phosphate
2) to maintain homeostasis of the body fluid volume and solute composition
3) to help control plasma pH
-Forms the outer layer of the kidney
-Forms the inner part of the kidney
Renal Pelvis
-Urine created by the kidney is emptied into the renal pelvis.
-The renal pelvis is emptied by the ureter.
-Carries urine to the bladder
-Drained by the urethra
-First capillary bed of the nephron
-Together, with the bowman's capsule, it makes up the renal corpuscle
-Screens out blood cells and large proteins from entering bowman's capsule(enters as filtrate)
Proximal Tubule
-Filtrate from bowman's capsule comes into the proximal tubule
-Proximal tubule is where most of the reabsorption takes place (secondary active transport responsible for reab. of glucose/proteins/solutes)
-Water is absorbed into the renal interstitium of the proximal tubules across permeable tight junctions due to osmotic gradient
-Net result = to reduce the amount of filtrate in nephron while changing solute composition w/out changing osmolarity
read pages 134-137