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55 Cards in this Set

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exocrine glands
release enzymes into external environment or into body cavities through ducts
endocrine glands
release hormones directly into body fluids
endocrine system
- take a longer time to produce effects
- effects are usually longer lasting
- released into general circulation and are therefore indirect
Pancreas as part of exocrine and endocrine system
- exocrine: releases digestive enzymes through pancreatic duct
- endocrine: releases insulin and glucagon into blood
General Functions of the Endocrine system
- alter metabolic activities
- regulate growth and development
- guide reproduction
Three types of hormones
- peptide
-steroid
- tyrosine derivatives
Production of peptide hormones
- manufactured in ER typically as a preprohormones, which is cleaved into a prohormone and exported to the golgi
- golgi packages the hormone into vesicles and exports via exocytosis
How peptide hormones work
- water soluble, bind to extracellular receptors of the effector
- Once bound they can...
1. the receptor can act as an ion channel
2. activate intracellular secondary messenger system (cAMP, cGMP, calmodulin)
Common peptide hormones
1) the anterior (front) pituitary hormones: FSH, LH, ACTH, hGH, TSH, Prolactin
2) the posterior (back) pituitary hormones: ADH and oxytocin
3) the parathyroid hormone: PTH
4) the pancreatic hormones: glucagon and insulin
5) thyroid - calcitonin
production of steroid hormones
formed in the smooth ER and the mitochondria
effect of steroid hormones
- usually act at the transcription level
- diffuse into the nucleus through the plasma membrane
- slow onset and last for long time
- usually increase production of proteins
Important steroid hormones
1. glucocoricoids and mineral corticoids of the adrenal cortex: cortisol and aldosterone (ACAC)
2. gonadal hormones: estrogen, progesterone, testosterone (estrogen and progesterone also produced by placenta)
"sterone"
indicates a steroid hormones
Characteristics of thyroid hormones
lipid soluble
bind to receptors in the nucleus, which increases the duration of their effect by induced a latent period
Role of thyroid hormones
increase transcription of large number of genes in nearly all cells of the body
Tyrosine derivatives (examples)
1. thyroid hormones: T3 (triiodothryonine) and T4 (thryoxine) --> in negative feedback with TSH
2. catecholamines (adrenal medulla): epinephrine and norepinephrine (AMEN)
characteristics of (nor)epinephrine
water soluble, dissolve in blood
bind to receptors on target tissue
act through cAMP
production of tyrosine derivatives
formed by enzymes in the cytosol or on the rough ER
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
1. hGH
2. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
3. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
4. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
5. LH (Luteinizing hormone)
6. Prolactin

**ALL ARE PEPTIDE HORMONES***
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Oxytocin
ADH (anti-diuretic hormone, vasopressin)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
1. Aldosterone
2. Cortisol

**BOTH ARE STEROID HORMONES**
Adrenal Medulla Hormones
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

**BOTH ARE TYROSINE DERIVATIVES**
Thryoid Hormones
T3, T4
Calcitonin
Parathyroid hormones
PH (parathyroid hormone)
Pancreatic Hormones
Insulin
Glucagon
Ovarian Hormones
Estrogen
Progesterone
Testes Hormones
Testosterone
Placenta Hormones
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
Human Growth Hormone (hGH)
- stimulates the growth of nearly all cells
- no specific target tissue
- stimulates growth by increasing episodes of mitosis, increasing cell size, increasing the rate of protein synthesis, mobilizing fat stores, increasing use of fatty acids and decreasing rates of glucose consumption
- peptide hormone
- anterior pituitary
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
- stimulates adrenal cortex (to release glucocorticoids via cAMP)
- peptide hormone
- anterior pituitary
- stimulated by stress
-
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
- stimulates the release of T3 and T4 from the thyroid via cAMP
- peptide hormone
- anterior pituitary
- T3 and T4 have a negative feedback effect on TSH
Prolactin
- promotes lactation
- anterior pituitary
- inhibited by estrogen and progesterone prior to pregnancy
- peptide hormone
Oxytocin
- increases uterine contractions and causes milk to be ejected from breasts
- posterior pituitary
- peptide
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
- causes collecting ducts of kidney to become permeable to water, increasing uptake of water and decreasing urine output
- increases blood pressure
- posterior pituitary
Relationship between Hypothalamus and Posterior pituitary
- hypothalamus synthesizes oxytocin and ADH in neural cell bodies.
- Sent down to posterior pituitary where they are released into the blood stream
Relationship between Anterior Pituitary and Hypothalamus
- hypothalamus releases stimulating/inhibitory hormones to the anterior pituitary
- carried by a specialized capillary bed down to the anterior pituitary
Aldosterone
- mineral corticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex
- acts on distal tubule of kidney
- increases Na+ and Cl- absorption and K+ and H+ secretion
- increases blood pressure
- steroid hormone
Mineral corticoids
- affect the electrolyte balance in the blood stream
Glucocorticoids
- increase blood glucose concentration and have a greater effect on fat and protein metabolism
Cortisol
- steroid hormone
- stress hormone
- increases blood glucose levels
- stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver (creation of glucose from amino acids, glycerol and lactic acid)
- causes degradation of adipose tissue and non-hepatic proteins
- diminishes capacity of immune system to fight infection
Catecholamines
- tyrosine derivatives synthesized from adrenal medulla
- epinephrine and norepinephrine
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
- same effect as nervous system (fight or flight) but lasting effects
- considered stress hormones
- vasoconstrictors of internal organs and skin, but vasodilators to skeletal muscle
T3 and T4 (thyroxine)
- increases basal metabolic rate
- thyroid hormone
- lipid soluble tyrosine derivatives
- act inside the nucleus
Calcitonin
- slightly decreases blood calcium by decreasing osteoclast activity and number
- large peptide hormone
- thyroid hormone
- not essential for blood calcium control
Insulin
- secreted by beta-islet cells of the pancreas
- decreasing blood glucose levels
- glucose is stored as glycogen in liver and muscle cells
- fat is stored in adipose tissue
- amino acids are turned to proteins
- neurons do not use insulin
- all other cells: insulin binds to a receptor and allows cells to become permeable to glucose
- also increases permeability of amino acids, metabolic enzymes are activated and translation/transcription rates effected
Glucagon
- peptide hormone released from alpha-islet cells of the pancreas
- stimulates glycocenolysis (breakdown of glycogen to glucose) and gluconeogenesis in liver
- increases blood level of glucose
- acts via cAMP
-
-
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
- peptide hormone that increases blood calcium
- increases osteocyte absorption of calcium and phosphate from bone
- stimulates release of 1,25(OH), derived from vitamin D, which stimulates calcium uptake from intestine
- increases renal reabsorption of calcium and phosphate in kidney
- part of negative feedback system
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Growth of Follicles in female
Sperm production in male
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
causes ovulation
stimulates estrogen and testosterone secretion
estrogen
growth of mother sex organs
causes LH surge
*steroid
testosterone
secondary sex characteristics
closing of epiphyseal plates
*steroid

--> look at PCS notes
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
Stimulates corpus luteum to grow and release estrogen and progesterone
Progesterone
prepares and maintains uterus for pregnancy
*steroid
estradiol
a form of estrogen secreted by theca cells that prepares the uterine wall for pregnancy
apoptosis
- programmed cell death
- regulated by protein activity (not transcription or translation)
- proteins involved with process are present but inactive in a normal cell
- mitochondria play an important role in apoptosis in mammals