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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many kingdoms?
What kind of reproduction?
divided into 5 kingdoms; represent a large and diverse assemblage of mostly unicellular organisms; all exhibit asexual reproduction
Kingdom Euglenozoa:
Which Phyla?
What kind of locomotion?
Domain Eukaryota; includes Phyla Euglenophyta and Kinoplastida; have whip-like flagella for locomotion
Phylum Euglenophyta
(euglenoids) freshwater unicellular forms such as Euglena
photosensitive spot which allows a Euglena to move to areas of high light intensity (good for photosynthesis)
Phylum Kinoplastida:
Where do they get their name?
Some examples?
(kinoplastids) symbiotic protists which get their name from the kinoplast, an organelle containing extranuclear DNA (i.e. trichonympha, trypanosoma)
red blood cells
Kingdom Alveolata:
Which Phyla?
Why the name?
includes Phyla Ciliophora, Dinoflagellata, Apicomplexa; all have alveoli, which are small membrane-bound spaces under the cell membrane
Phylum Ciliophora
(ciliates) move by cilia, which are shorter and more numerous than flagella
found in paramecia; secrete thin threads of protein that may stabilize the organism during feeding
involved in control of metabolic processes; found in Paramecia
functions in sexual reproduction;found in Paramecia
a form of asexual reproduction where the micronucleus divides and 2 organism micronuclei fuse (Ciliophora)
Phylum Dinoflagellata
(dinoflagellates) small, single-celled marine protists consisting of fused plates of cellulose (i.e. red tide)
Phylum Apicomplexa
(apicomplexans) entirely parasitic, including malaria;
Kingdom Stramenopila:
Which Phyla?
What do they all have in common?
includes Phyla Oomycota, Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta; all are aquatic and photosynthetic; 2 types of flagella - short and hairy, smooth and whip-like
Phylum Bacillariophyta:
What pigments do they possess?
What is the storage product?
What are their shells made of?
Important fact?
(diatoms) huge diversity of organisms; possess chlorophylls a and c, fucoxanthin; storage product is leucosin; their shells are made of silica; produce 80% of oxygen in the atmosphere
Phylum Oomycota:
Reproductive structures?
(water molds) major decomposers of aquatic vegetation (i.e. the potato blight); antheridia are male structures which produce sperm and oogonia produce eggs
Phylum Phaeophyta:
Which pigments do they possess?
What is their storage product?
What commercial product comes from this?
(brown algae) multicellular, large, complex organisms which possess chlorophylls a and c, fucoxanthin; storage product is laminarin; algin is a product of this
root-like structure of algae
stem-like structure of algae
leaf-like structure of algae
Kingdom Amoebozoa
includes Phyla Gymnamoeba, Myxomycota, and Dictyostelida
Phylum Gymnamoeba:
How do they move/eat?
(amoebas) naked or shelled amoebas which move by pseudopodia and eat by phagocytosis
Phylum Myxomycota:
Describe the life cycle.
(plasmodial slime molds) LIFE CYCLE: form multinucleate plasmodium to feed; stalked sporangia form and produce spores, which fuse to form diploid zygote (sexual)
Phylum Dictyostelida:
Describe life cycle
(cellular slime molds) LIFE CYCLE: free-roaming, unicellular amoebas to feed; when food is low, form a slug stage made up of many amoebas; sporangia form and spores become new unicellular amoebas (asexual)
cytoplasmic streaming
cytoplasm flowing through cell; ebbing and flowing allows nutrients and metabolic products to be transported throughout cellular mass
Kingdom Rhodophyta:
Which pigments are found in this?
What is its storage product?
What product comes from this?
(Red Algae) can be found at great depths; pigments include phycoerythrin, chlorophylls a and d, cartenoids; Floridean starch is storage product; Agar comes from this
Fetal pig
has undergone 100 days of development; internal structure is typical of most mammals
dorsal side
ventral side
umbilical cord:
attached the fetus to the mother's placenta; umbilical vein carried nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, while the umbilical arteries carried waste products and CO2 away from the fetus
Female fetal pig
genital papilla protrudes from a urogenital opening ventral to the anus
Male fetal pig
urogenital opening is just behind the umbilical cord; swelling behind the hindlimbs is the scrotum
nipples/taste buds
thin sheet of muscle separating the anterior thoracic cavity from the more posterior abdominal cavity
Blood flow in the heart (all mammals)
blood enters right atrium of heart from vena cavae -> pumped into right ventricle -> pumped out into pulmonary trunk to the lungs -> enters left atrium -> pumped into left ventricle -> pumped into aortic arch -> dorsal aorta
Inferior vena cava
drains blood from lower part of the body
Superior vena cava
returns blood from arms and head
braciocephalic artery
carries blood to the head and right arm and shoulder
left subclavian artery
carries blood to the left arm and shoulder
iliac arteries
each carry blood to one leg
Adaptations of the fetal pig heart
foramen ovale is an opening between the right and left atria; ductus arteriosus diverts blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch
Respiratory System
Air passes through the glottis -> down the trachea to two bronchi -> bronchioles -> alveoli where gases are exchanged
largest organ of the body which secretes bile (stored in the gall bladder)
pyloric sphincter
muscle which regulates passage of material out of the stomach into the small intestine
Small Intestine
made up of the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum
blind pouch of the small intestine located near its junction with the large intestine
set of three membranes covering the brain
important decomposers composed of hyphae which form mycelia
Phylum Zygomycota:
Sexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction?
(bread molds) coenocytic hyphae with haploid nuclei; asexual reproduction by sporangia; sexual reproduction occurs when + and - hyphae fuse to form a zygospore
hyphal filament growing along the substrate in a zygomycete
anchor a zygomycete
Phylum Ascomycota:
How do they reproduce?
(sac fungi) to reproduce, gametangia are produced with haploid nuclei -> a cytoplasmic bridge joins the two so that nuclei can associate forming dikarya -> fruiting body is ascocarp; ascus forms 8 ascospores (i.e. penicillin)
Phylum Basidiomycota:
What are the fruiting bodies?
How many spores are produced?
(club fungi) diverse fungi phylum with basidiocarps as fruiting bodies; produce 4 basidiospores
fungi-plant associations at the roots in which the fungus aids in absorption of water and dissolved minerals while the plant provides food
a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism (usually a ascomycete or basidiomycete and a cyanobacteria or algae)
Kingdom Chlorophyta:
Which Phyla?
What is special about this kingdom?
includes Phyla Chlorophyta and Charophyta; shares many characteristics with plants such as primary pigments, starch as storage product, cell wall of cellulose, etc.
Phylum Chlorophyta
(green algae) very diverse; daughter colonies can often be seen within the parent colony
Phylum Charophyta:
(charophyceans or stoneworts) Phylum closest to plants - they share the formation of a phragmoplast during cell wall formation; i.e. Chara; reproduce by conjugation tube connecting antheridia and archegonia
Kingdom Plantae
made up of several phyla; land plants characterized by multicellular dependent embryos
Alternation of Generations
succession between a haploid and diploid condition; haploid (N) plants, or gametophytes, produce gametes in specialized organs - archegonia produce eggs and antheridia, sperm; fusion of sperm and egg, syngamy, produces a diploid zygote which becomes a sporophyte, and then produces spores
when spores produced turn into either male or female gametophytes
spores develop into gametophytes capable of producing male and female sex organs
Non-vascular land plants; phyla Heptatopyta and Bryophyta; closely tied to water; lack effective system for transport; small and close to the ground; depend on water for reproduction
Phylum Hepatophyta:
Which stage is dominant?
Dioecious or monoecious?
Asexual Reproduction?
(liverworts) gametophyte is dominant; dioecious; reproduce asexually with gemmae cup
separate male and female plants
Phylum Bryophyta
(mosses) gametophyte is green, photosynthetic, and leafy; sporophyte grows from it, with capsule at apex which releases spores
Which Phyla?
Vascular plants which have xylem and phloem; include Phyls Lycophyta and Pterophyta
conducts water and dissolved minerals from root; made up of tracheids and vessels, which are dead and consist only of empty cell walls
primary water-conducting elements in seedless vascular plants and gymnosperms; small and elongated
Wood Vessels
make up the xylem of angiosperms; arranged end to end to form a series of tubules with perforated ends
transports sucrose from leaves to the rest of the plant; made up of sieve tube cells and companion cells, which are living
Phylum Lycophyta:
Where are sporangia?
(club mosses and quillworts) most primitive vascular plants, with true roots and scale-like leaves; sporangia are positioned laterally on stem, and form strobili
small, scale-like leaf; single, unbranching trace of vascular tissue arising from the stem and invading a leaf
leaves with extensively branching vascular tissues which are found in ferns and seed plants
Phylum Pterophyta:
What are included, and describe each.
(fern and fern allies)
whisk ferns - lack roots; have underground rhizome that absorbs
horsetails - stems are ribbed with nodes and internodes; made up of vegetative (infertile) and reproductive shoots
Ferns have large megaphyll leaves called fronds, which arise from rhizomes; when sporangia called sori form on the underside of leaves, spores can be produced
Which Phyla?
What is the dominant stage?
Seed Plants; includes Phyla Coniferophyta, Gingkophyta, and Cycadophyta; dominant stage is diploid sporophyte
plant embryo protected by one or more integument
Phylum Gingkophyta:
How many species?
What is a big difference between males and females?
(gingko) only one species; females are foul; males smell nice
Phylum Cycadophyta:
Dioecious or monoecious?
Where do species form from?
(cycads) dioecious; most species form terminal strobili which produce pollen (if male); seeds may take years to mature
Phylum Coniferophyta:
Dioecious or monoecious?
(conifers) monoecious; make up boreal forests
staminate cones
male cones; higher up on trees; may release billions of pollen
ovulate cones
female cones; small and fleshy;
Phylum Anthophyta
(flowering plants) seeds are protected by 2 integuments around the embryo and tissues of the ovary; very successful group aided by flowers
Female part of the flower; composed of stigma, style, and ovary;
Male part of flower; cpmposed of anthers and filaments
Gametophyte Generation of Anthophyta
The embryo sac undergoes meiotic cell division, resulting in 4 haploid megaspores; 3 of these fuse to form a triploid nucleus; This undergoes 2 mitosis divisions, forming 4 triploid nuclei; 3 form the antipodal nuclei, one the polar nucleus
double fertilization
one sperm fuses with egg nucleus to form zygote, the other with the 2 polar nuclei to form a pentaploid; zygote forms embryo, pentaploid the endosperm
clade Magnoliid
large, leathery leaves and large, beetle-pollinated flowers (i.e. Magnolia)
clade Monocots:
What do they have?
(grasses, palms, lilies, orchids) embryo ony has one cotyledon; trimerous flowers; parallel venation in leaves; scattered vascular bundles; adventitious roots; monosulcate pollen
clade Eudicots:
What do they have?
(beans) embryo has 2 cotyledons; tertramerous or pentamerous flowers; reticulate venation in leaves; vascular tissue arranged in rings; primary roots and lateral roots; tricolpate pollen
Parenchyma cells
ground cells of plants, which make up the bulk of the body;
ground tissue between the vascular elements and the epidermis
thick-celled walls specialized for support
modified form of parenchyma specialized for support in young plant organs
primary growth
growth in length; tips of shoots or roots; achieved through apical meristems
secondary growth
increase in diameter; result of production of secondary xylem and phloem by the vascular cambium
root cap
protects the apical meristem as it grows through the soil
sites at which buds arise
length of the shoot between two adjacent
vascular cambium
meristematic tissue that produces new xylem and phloem; outermost xylem is youngest, innermost phloem is youngest
openings through which gases enter and exit the leaf
guard cells
regulate the opening and closing of the stomata
palisade mesophyll
primary site of photosynthetic activity in the leaf
thin covering on the upper epidermis which helps prevent water loss
palmate leaves
look like fingers
pinnate leaves
look like feathers
storage product of plants; photosynthate
casparian strip
prevents water from passing into the roots from the apoplast
root hairs
cover the root and enhance surface area