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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
referring to the deadlines of a disease-causing agent
the transfer of genetic material from one organism to another; first obvserved by Griffith
virus that infects bacteria
spiral-staircase structure characteristic of the DNA molecule
Double helix
subunit of nucleic acids consisting of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
the rule stating that in DNA adenine on one strand always pairs with a thymine on the opposite strand and guanine on one strand always pairs with cytosine on the opposite strand
base-pairing rules
characterisitc of nucleic acids in which th esequence of bases on one strand determines the sequence of bases on the other
the process of making a copy of DNA
DNA replication
enzyme that breaks the hydrogen bonds between bases during DNA replication
DNA helicase
a Y-shaped point that results when a double helix of DNA separates so that it can be copied
Replication fork
enzyme that catlyzes the replication of DNA by adding complementary nucleotides
DNA polymerase
a type of nucleic acid involved in protein synthesis
nitrogen-containing base of RNA, complementary to adenine when RNA base pairs with DNA
stage of protein synthesis in which the information in DNA for making a protein is transferred to an RNA molecule
stage of gene expression in which the information in mRNA is used to make a protein
two-stage processing of information encoded in DNA to produce proteins
gene expression
enzyme that adds and links complementary RNA nucleotides during transcription
RNA polymerase
RNA copy of a gene used as a blueprint for the making of a protein during translation
Messenger RNA
a three nucleotide sequence in DNA or mRNA that encodes an amion acid or signifies a stop signal
sequence of nucleotides that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
genetic code
RNA molecule that temporarily carries a specific amino acid to a ribosome during translation
Transfer RNA
a three-nucleotide sequence on tRNA that recognizes a complementary codon on mRNA
type of RNA molecule that plays a stuctural role in ribosomes
Ribosomal RNA
region of DNA that controls RNA polymerase's access to a set of genes with related functions
segment of DNA that controls gene regulation in a set of genes with related functions in prokaryotes
gene system with a promoter, an operator gene, and three structural genes that control lactose metabolism
lac operon
protein that binds to the operator in an operon to switch off transcription
segment of mRNA transcribed form eukaryotic DNA but removed before translation of mRNA into a protein
sequence of nucleotides on a gene that gets transcribed and translated
mutation in which on or just a few nucleotides in a gene are changed
point mutation