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25 Cards in this Set

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the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical means
atom
a substance made of only one kind of atom; a pure substance
element
a substance made of the joined atoms of two or more different elements
compound
a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
molecule
an atom that has an electrical charge because they contain an unequal number of electrons and protons
ion
an attraction between substances of the same kind
cohesion
an attraction between different substances
adhesion
a mixture in which one or more substances are evenly distributed in another substance
solution
a compound that forms hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
acid
a compound that reduces the concentration of hydrogen ions
base
organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion 1:2:1
carbohydrate
the building blocks of carbohydrates; single sugars
monosaccharides
nonpolar molecules that are not soluble in water
lipids
a chain of molecules called amino acids linked together
protein
the building blocks of proteins
amino acid
a long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides
nucleic acid
subunit of nucleic acids consisting of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
nucleotide
two strands of nucleotides that spiral around each other
DNA
a single strand of nucleotides
RNA
a single nucleotide with two extra energy-storing phosphate groups
ATP
the ability to move or change matter
energy
the energy needed to start a chemical reaction
activation energy
a substance tht increases the speed of chemical reactions
enzyme
a substance on which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction
substrate
site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
active site