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30 Cards in this Set

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Four characteristics of prokaryotes:
~no nucleus
~no mitochondria
~no chloroplasts
~1/10 siz of eukaryote
pili
on many species; short, filamentous proteins that project above the cell wall
diplo
two
strepto
long strands
staphylo
clumps
gram stain classification colors
red=two layers thick, negative
purple=only one layer of carb/protein in cell wall, positive
What are the different movements in which bacteria can be classified?
flagella: fast, single direction
cilia: slower
sliding (ameboid) motion
~none
How can bacteria be classified by respiration?
Aerobic: must have oxygen
Anaerobic: must not have oxygen
Facilitative: can go either way
How can bacteria be classified by reproduction?
~Binary fission: asexual
~Conjugation: bacterial exchange
~Spore formation: for surviving harsh environment
~Transduction: viral transference of DNA
~Transformation
virus
invasive noncellular particle made up of genetic material and protein
lytic cycle
1. virus injects DNA into bacteria
2. DNA of virus takes over control of bacterial DNA so that only viral proteins and nucleic acid are made. Enzymes of virus inactivate bacterial enzymes.
3. Self assembly (budding)
4. Bacterial cell bursts open, releasing viruses.
lysogenic cycle
1. virus injects DNA (DNA remains part of bacterial DNA loop)
2.binary fission for numerous generations
3. lytic cycle again
disease
body's response to foreign invasion
~Bacteria compete for nutrients and oxygen against regular cell
~viruses destroy (usually) the cells they infect
external barriers
~oil and sweat glands
~mucus containing lysozymes, hair cilia
~stomach acid
nonspecific external defense
combats all types of microbes
immune response
If a pathogen is able to get past the body's nonspecific defenses, body reacts with specific defense.
inflammation
~In damaged tissue, capillaries dilate due to histamine release. The dilation causes skin to get red and warm.
~Seepage from blood vessels causes swelling.
~Seepage also carries proteins and phagocytes...pus results...tissue repaired
agglutination
Antibodies bind to the antigen to destroy it.
opsonizing
Bacteria which haveantibodies attached tag them for destruction by phagocytes.
passive immunity
injection of animal cells which have antibodies already manufactured
cell mediated immunity
T-cells which attack anything foreign by secretion of enzymes which puncture the pathogen. Killer T-cells are responsible for tissue rejection during transplants.
cyclosporin
a fungal derivative, suppresses cell-mediated response
interleukin-2
turns T-cells into Killer T-cells
Oparin
Russian biologist offers explanation of how first organism, a single-cell prokaryote, is created.
gasses at the beginning of time
CH4=methane
NH3=ammonia
H20=water vapor
U.V. radiation (broke the bonds, primordial soup the result)
micelle
cell prototype containing organic compounds, evolved into cell with membrane
Protista
~cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts
~most are unicellular
~auto & heterotrophs
Fungi
~cell walls made of chitin
~most are multicellular
~autotrophs and heterotrophs
Plantae
~cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts
~multicellular
~autotrophs
Animalia
~no cell walls or chloroplasts
~multicellular
~heterotroph