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106 Cards in this Set

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Plants undergo alternation of generations. T/F
True
Plants contain this for producing energy
Chloroplasts
What does an organism do if it undergoes alternation of generations?
They have a diploid sporophyte, which produces spores, followed by a haploid gametophyte, which produces gametes.
There are close to ____ different species of plants.
300,000
Plant classification is based mostly on what?
Their degree of independence from water for reproduction and the stage (generation) that dominates most of their life cycle.
Most plant chloroplasts are structured in this way
Thylakoid membranes in stacks called grana, containing chlorophyll A and B.
Plant storage sugar
Starch
Plant cell walls contain this
Cellulose
Plant cells multiply by this method
Cytoplasmic division by cell plate formation
Phragmoplast
Forming in late cytokinesis, it is the beginning of the cell plate formation
Liverworts
Classify
D. Hepaticophyta
Mosses
Classify
D. Bryophyta
Hornworts
Classify
D. Anthocerophyta
Non-vascular (Avascular) plants inhabit these areas
Wetlands, marshes and other moist environments
There are ____ known species of avascular plants
35,000
The sporophyte stage of avascular plants is _____ and dependent on the _____ for its nutritional needs.
reduced, gametophyte
Avascular plants reproduce this way
asexual reproduction by fragmentation and spore dispersal
Sexual reproduction in bryophytes requires what? Why?
Water, so the flagellated sperm cell can swim successfully to the female reproductive organ and fertilize the egg.
Seedless vascular plants are characterized by
A large independent sporophyte, which is commonly visible. The gametophyte, while photosynthetic, is almost microscopic.
Ferns
Classify
D. Pterophyta
Horsetails
Classify
D. Sphenophyta
Gametangium
Organ or cell in which gametes are produced
Antheridium
Structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants which produce and contain spermatids or male gametes. Present in lower plants such as mosses and ferns.
Sporangium
Plant/fungal structure producing and containing spores. Occur in angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns, mosses, algae and fungi.
Archegonium
Multicellular structure or organ in the gametophyte phase of certain plants producing and containing the ovum of the female gamete. Has a long neck and swollen base.
These plants present overwhelming dominance of the sporophyte stage throughout their life cycles.
Seeded vascular plants
These plants show independence from water for reproduction
Seeded vascular plants
These plants sperm is not flagellated
Seeded vascular plants
Seeded vascular plants are divided into two major groups called
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Angiosperms have more than ____ species
250,000
These vascular plants have flowers
Angiosperms
These vascular plants have no flowers
Gymnosperms
Cotyledon
Part of the embryo within the seed of a plant which usually becomes the first leaves of a seedling. Used to classify angiosperms by number of cotyledons, monocots (one) or dicots (two)
Animals are divided into these major groups
Vertebrates, Invertebrates
These animals have an endoskeleton of cartilage or bone
Vertebrates
Animals are classified with these general traits
-Levels of organization in adults
-Body symmetry in adult or
larvae
-Patterns of alimentary
canal development
-Number of germ layers
-Presense/Absence of body
cavity
-Skeletal structures
Simplest organisms within the Kingdom Animalia are
Porifera and Cnidaria
These Animalia organisms exhibit limited tissue development and almost no organ organization
Porifera and Cnidaria
Members of Phylum _____ show well developed reproductive systems typical of parasitic species.
Platyhelminthes
This phylum contains sessile aquatic filter feeders without a distinct digestive system
Phylum porifera
These have asymmetric bodies made of a porous cell mass surrounding a hollow cavity called the spongocoel.
Porifera
Spongocoel
hollow cavity found in porifera
Water drawn into the pores of porifera by these
choanocytes
Choanocytes also known as
collar cells
In porifera, water leaves from the spongocoel through a large opening called ____ near the ____ end of the body.
osculum, superior
Body walls of porifera are supported by
A skeleton of calcium carbonate crystals, silica spicules, or spongin (protein) fibers.
There are approximately ____ species of described Porifera (sponges).
9000
This phylum is characterized by radial symmetry and the presence of only two well-defined layers: an outer epidermis and an inner gastrodermis.
Cnidaria
Cnidaria are characterized by
Radial symmetry and two well-defined layers: an outer epidermis and an inner gastrodermis
Mesoglea
The non-cellular, jelly like region between the epidermis and gastrodermis of Cnideria
There are more than ____ known species in Phylum Cnidaria.
10,000
Cnidocytes
Stinging cells found in Cnidaria
Planula
Mobile larval stage of Cnidaria
Cnidaria have two adult stages. Describe them
Sessile polyp
Swimming medusa
Describe the digestive system of Cnidaria
Has only one opening which acts as both a mouth and an anus
In some cases this phylum has developed a rudimentary neuromuscular system for the first time among animals
Cnidaria
Cnidaria reproduce by
Sexual reproduction and asexual budding
Platyhelminthes have what kind of symmetry?
Bilateral
Platyhelminthes have what types of tissue layers
endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
Describe the Platyhelminthes digestive system
One sole opening, pharynx, which connects to a very well partitioned gastrovascular cavity.
Platyhelminthes have more than ____ different species.
20,000
What forms are Platyhelminthes seperated into?
Terrestial, aquatic, parasitic
Describe the life cycle of a parasitic Platyhelminthes as far as its hosts.
Parasitic Platyhelminthes will go through several intermediary hosts before successful infection of the final host.
These phylum of worms is mostly parasitic.
Phylum Nematoda
Define pseudocoelomate

Which phylum is described by this?
body cavity present, but not lined with the mesoderm.

Nematoda
What kind of symmetry do Nematoda have?
Bilateral symmetry
What kind of digestive system do Nematoda have?
Tube inside the body with a mouth and anus at opposite ends.
What kind of reproduction do Nematoda have?
Mostly sexual
Nematoda have more than ____ species.
90,000
Non-segmented roundworms are part of this Phylum
Nematoda
Non-segmented flatworms are part of this Phylum
Platyhelminthes
Jellyfish and allies are part of this Phylum
Cnidaria
Sponges are part of this Phylum
Porifera
Phylum Mollusca contains these organisms
elephant-tusks
chitons
clams
snails
octopuses
What kind of symmetry are Mollusca
Bilateral Symmetry
The body of Mollusca are divided into these major regions.
Head, mantle, foot, visceral mass
Many species of the Phylum ____ secrete a calcareous shell from the ____ as exoskeleton.
Mollusca, mantle
Most organisms in Phylum ____ have an open circulatory system with a three chambered heart.
Mollusca
In Mollusca, there is an oxygen carrying pigment called _____ which circulates in their _____.
hemocyanin, hemolymph
Mollusca mostly inhabit what kind of environment
aquatic
Elephant-tusks are part of this Phylum.
Mollusca
Chitons are part of this Phylum.
Mollusca
Clams are part of this Phylum.
Mollusca
Snails are part of this Phylum.
Mollusca
Octopuses are part of this Phylum.
Mollusca
Segmented worms are part of this Phylum
Annelida
Annelida have this type of symmetry
Bilateral
The structure of Annelida is
A true coelom lined by mesodermic tissue, which holds a variety of well-developed organs in suspension and works as a hydrostatic endoskeleton.
How are Annelida classified?
-Presence of locomotion structures such as parapodia and seta
-Degree of cephalization
-Life style
Annelids live in this kind of habitat.
Mostly aquatic although some live in damp soils
Hermaphroditic individuals are common in this Phylum.
Annelids
What genus are jellyfish?
Gonionemus sp.
What genus are corals?
Gorgonia sp.
What genus are flatworms?
Planaria sp.
What genus are man-o-war?
Physalia sp.
What genus are sponges?
Grantia sp.
What genus are liver fluke?
Fasciola sp.
What genus are tapeworms?
Taenia sp.
What genus are roundworms?
Ascaris sp.
What genus are squid?
Loligo sp.
What genus are clams?
Mercenaria sp.
What genus are sandworms?
Nereis sp.
What genus are earthworms?
Lumbricus sp.
What genus are leeches?
Hirudo sp.
What phylum is Marchantia sp. part of?
D. Hepaticophyta (Liverworts)
What phylum is Mnium sp. part of?
D. Bryophyta (Mosses)