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36 Cards in this Set

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Robert Hooke
First person to see a cell. Said he saw "a great many boxes." Looked at cork cells.
Anton van Leeuwenhock
First to see living cells. Called them "animalcules"
Theodore Schwann
Zoologist who said all animals are made of cells
Mattias Schlieden
Botonist, observed that the tissues of plants contained cells
Rudolf Virchow
Predicted that all cells come from other cells
Three rules to cell theory
1. All living things are made of cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and funtion in life
3. All cells come from other cells
Four main parts to a eukaryotic cell
1. Cell membrane
2. Organelles
3. Nucleus
4. Cytoplasm
What is the main molecule in the cell membrane? How does it arrange itself? Why is arranged like that?
Phospholipids, arranged in a double layer with tails in the middle, tails repel water
What does selectively permeable mean and what in the cell is selectively permeable?
Only will let certain things pass in or out of the cell. cell membrane
Passive Transport
Uses no energy. Substances flow from High to Low concentration
Active Transport
Cell must use energy. Substances flow from LOW to HIGH concentration.
Diffusion
Movement from High to Low concentration. Passive.
Osmosis
Diffusion of Water. Passive
Facilitated Diffusion
Uses a carrier protein to transport large amounts of particles. Moves from HIGH to LOW concentration. Passive.
Ion Pump
A protein in the cell membrane moves ions (charged particles) from low to high concentration. Active transport.
Endocytosis
Cell membrane wraps around something to bring it INTO the cell. Active.
Exocytosis
A vesicle INSIDE the cell fuses with the cell membrane to push OUT large particles. Active.
Pinocytosis
Cell injestion of liquids
Phagocytosis
Cell injestion of solids
Mitochondria
Provides the cell with energy (ATP)
Ribosomes
Makes protein in the cell
Endoplasmic reticulum
Transports protein throughout the cell. Rough has ribosomes, smooth doesn't
Golgi Body
Prepares proteins for export. Shipping department.
Lysosomes
Digests things in a cell. (old organelles, proteins, pathogens)
Nucleus
Control center of the cell. Directs all of the cells activities. Contains DNA
Nucleolus
Inside the nucleus. Makes ribosomes.
Flagella
Moves the cell like a propeller. Long and usually only one or two per cell.
Cilia
Hairlike projections on the outside of the cell, used to trap debris and attach to other cells. Short, and usually many per cell.
Cytoskeleton
Thin protein strands throughout the cell. Gives structure and support for the cell, and helps with organelle movement.
Cell Wall
The outer boundary of a plant cell. Made of cellulose. Gives the plant cell a rigid structure and a definite shape.
Vacuole
A large fluid filled organelle in plant cells. Stores excess water, and some toxins.
Chloroplasts
An organelle with a double membrane. Captures light energy from the sun, and turns it into food for the plant.
Hypertonic Solution
When the solute is more concentrated outside the cell. Water will leave the cell and it will shrink.
Hypotonic solution
When the solute is less concentrated outside the cell. Water will enter the cell and it will swell, or burst
Isotonic solution
When the solute concentration is equal inside and outside of the cell. Water moves in and out of the cell at the same rate. The size of the cell stays the same.
Cell Membrane
A double layer of phospholipids. Allows certain things to come inside and outside of the cell.