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68 Cards in this Set

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A collectionof scientific facts,observations, and hypothesis
Evolutionary thory
Change over time...the process of now modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
Evolution
A well supported, testable explanation of a natural phenomenon
a theory
Scientist that sailed around the world on the HMS beagle, studied Galapagos islands, observed a wide range of diversity among plants and animals. "Could these separate species have evolved from an original ancerstor afterbecoming isolated?"
Charles Darwin
What did earths' early atomsphere consist of?
hydrogen cyanide, CO2,nitrogen,hydrogen sulfide, and water
What very important gas was not present during early earths time period?
oxygen,which later came from photosynthetic organisms
Two scientists that put early earth's inorganic atmospheric gases in a sealed chamber to show how firstlife forms may have developed
Miller and Urey
Result of Miller and Urey's experiment?
Organic compounds formed after sealing inorganic atmospheric gases in a sealed chamber then adding heat
The two types of first cells
Prokaryotic,anerobic
Cells without a nucleus
prokaryotic
Cells that did not use or need oxygen
anaerobic
Theory that prokaryotic cells grouped together to form one eukaryotic cell
Endosymbiotic theory
Divisions of labor within the cell (term)
cell specialization
Genetic recombination in offspring is allowed by what?
sexual reproduction
Scientists who study fossils are...
Paleontologists
Factors like structure, diet, predators, and environments can all be determined by what?
Fossils
Gives evidence for the history of life on earth (term)
The fossil record
The fossil record shows how different groups of organisms have changed over time. It is also __________
incomplete
Layers of rock that contain most fossils and are deposited over time (term)
sedimentary rock
The type of fossil dating where age is compared to other fossils.(oldest fossils are lowest in layers)
Relative dating (they dont know how long it takes each layer to form)
The type of fossil dating where they study the actual age of the fossil and analyze the amount of radioactive isotope still left in the fossil
radioactive dating
Over ____ percent of Earth's species have become extinct
99!
_____(person) argued that living things have been evolving on earth for millions of years
Darwin, Charles
There are six general types of evidence of Darwins' theory. They are...
the fossil record, geographic distribution, homologous body structures, vestigal structures, embryological similarities, biochemical
One of six types of evidence that shows that fossils arethe remains of ancient life, and that examining fossils in layers of sedimentary rock show gradual change over time
the fossil record
One of six types of evidence that shows certain animals in similar environments evolve similar features due to the similar pressures of natural selection
geographic distribution
One of six types of evidence that shows Body parts develop from the same cells in developing embryos but differ widely in their form and function as adults
Homologous body structures
Structures that have different mature forms in different organisms, but develop from the same embryotic tissue(term)
homologous structures
One of six types of evidence that shows structures that once served a purpose but are now reduced in size and have no present function
vestigal structures
One of six types of evidence that shows during periods of the early stages of embryo developement, different vertabraes are very similar
Embryological similarities
One of six types of evidence that shows when DNA sequences are compared, the closer the DNA sequence the closer the evolutionary relationship
biochemical
Geologist that proposed that geologic events or forces had shaped our earth.
*the geiologic features of earth such as rocklayers, mountains form very slowly
*earth had to be more than a few thousand years old, that these processes take millions of years
1795- James Hutton
Geologist that explained the proscesses that shaped theearth in his book Principles of Geology
*these processes have shaped and continue to shape
*This helped explain how marine fossils could end up at thetop of a mountain range
1833- Charles Lyell
Naturalist who proposed that living things change over time and that all species were descended from other species.
*Organisms were somehow adapted to environment
**ACQUIRED TRAITS CAN BE PASSED ON TO THE NEXT GENERATION
Jean-baptiste Lamarck-1809
(his theories were incorrect)
a type of characteristic: blue eyes
inherited
a type of characteristic: playing piano
acquired
economist that stated people are being born faster than they are dying
*if the population continued to grow unchecked there would not be enough food or space for anyone
Thomas Malthus-1798
_____(person) returned in 1836 to England with his specimen from around the world
DARWIN...(hms beagle)
In 1858 _________(person) published a short essay on evolutionary change
Alfred Wallace
In 1859 darwin published...
On the Origin of Species *(an entire volume)
Darwins' Theory of _________ is divided into six parts.
Natural Selection
A theory of natural selection (one of six)
*The environment can't support every organism that is born
Organisms produce more offspring that actually survive
A theory of natural selection (one of six)
*Memebers of each species must compete for resources
Every organism must struggle for existence
A theory of natural selection (one of six)
*Not all the invdividuals of a population have the same traits
(adaptation)
Natural Variation exists within a population
A theory of natural selection (one of six)
*Survival of the fittest
Some adaptations allow memebers to survive and reproduce better (fitness)
A theory of natural selection (one of six)
*Organisms with best fitness pass their traits on, and these helpful traits gradually appear in more and morefo the offspring (artificial selection, breeding, etc.)
natural selection
A theory of natural selection (one of six)
*Each species has descended with changes from other species
(common descent)
Descent with Modification
a group of organisms that breed and produce fertile offspring (term)
species
the process ofhow new species are formed
speciation
For new species to evolve, populations muist become ___________ ________ from one another.
reporductively isolated
When members of two populations can not interbreed and produce fertile offspring. (term)
reproductive isolation
The three ways of reproductive isolation
geographic, behavioral, temporal (time)
Type of reproductive isolation where: two populations are seperated by geographic barriers like rivers, mountains, bodies of water
geographic isolation
Type of reproductive isolation where: two populations are capable of interbreeding,but have differences in courtship rituals or mating behaviors
behaviorial isolation
Type of reproductive isolation where: two populations live in the same environment but breed at different times
temporal isolation
Era that contains quarternary and tertiary
*warmer climate, first humans
* mammals adapted to the water land and sky. "age of mammals"
Cenozioc Era
Era that contains cretaceous, jurassic, and triassic periods.
*earliest plants
*earliest birds and mammals
*earliest dinosaurs "age of mammals"
Mesozoic Era
Era that contains permian, carboniferous, devonian,silurian,ordivican, and cambrian periods
*First land animals, amphibiens..."age of fish"
*first land plants
*Earliest Fish
Paleozoic Era
Era in which the origin of life in seas took place
*fossils are rare
*mainly unicellular life
Pre-Cambrian Era
The frequency of an allele in the population (term)
gene frequency
a change in the DNA sequence (term)
mutations
Variation in genes due to independent assortment and crossing over
gene shuffling
DIRECTIONAL SELECTION:
When individuals at _______ of the curve have higher fitess than individuals in the ___________.
1)one end
2)middle or other end
STABILIZING SELECTION:
when individuals __________ of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at _____
1) near the center
2) either
DISRUPTIVE SELECTION:
When individuals at the _______ of the curve have higeher fitness than individuals _______.
1) upper and or lower
2) near the middle
The ______ _______ principle describes a hypothetical situationin which tehre is nochange ibn the gene pool, hence no evolution
Hardy Weinberg
the frequencies of alleles will remain unchanged generation after generation if these conditions are met (5)
Large population, Random mating, no mutation,no migration, no natural selection
Define Genetic Drift.
in small populatikons, an allele can belost in a population due to chance