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25 Cards in this Set

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Genetics
Is the branch of biology that focuses on the inheritance of traits.
Pollen grains
Small sacs that mature in the male reproductive structure of the plant.
Phenotype
The observable characteristics of an individual, due to its alleles
Parental generation and F1
The adults used in an initial experimental cross. Their progenies (offspring) are called the F1 generation.
Dominant
Will dominate over the recessive trait (not more common or better then recessive ones)
Alleles
Different Versions of the same gene
Genotype
Alleles that are found in a particular individual. An individuals genotype has a profound effect on its phenotype.
Phenotype
its physical traits. The appearance of an orgranism due to its alleles
karyotype
An organisms total compliment of chromosomes.
Principle of segregation
The two alleles of each gene must seperate into different gamete cells during the formation of eggs and sperm
Homozygote
A diploid organism with two indentical alleles for a gene
Heterozygote
A diploid organism with two different alleles for a gene
Dihybrid cross
A mating between parents that are both heterozygous for two traits is called a
Transmission genetics
The patterns that occur as alleles pass from one generation to the next
Wild type
most commmon phenotype
Translocations
When a piece of one chromosome ends up on another, not homologous one within the genome
Deletions
A part of the genetic material is lost from a chromosome.
Incomplete dominance
Intermediate phenotype in F1, parental phenotypes reappear in F2. The flowers of the snapdragon plant can be red, pink, or white. Color is determined at a single locus. The genotype RR results in red flowers and rr results in white flowers. The heterozygote genotype of Rr results in pink flowers. When the heterozygote has a different, intermediate phenotype compared to the homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive individuals, this is said to be incomplete dominance.
Codominance
ABO Blood The situation in which two different alleles for a trait are expressed unblended in the phenotype of heterozygous individuals. Neither allele is dominant or recessive, so that both influence the phenotype. Type AB Blood is an example. Such traits are said to be codominant
Polygentic
one trait has many genes; the number of contributing alleles an individual has determines phenotype; as in human height, fingerprint, ridge count and skin pigmentation
simple dominance
one gene with two alleles codes for a trait and one allele is expressed over the other when both are present in heterozygotes
epistasis
two genes code for a phenotype and interactions between genes effect expression of trait; coat color in rats is an example.
Helicase
Catalyzes the breaking of hydrogen bonds between nucleotides. Open double helix
Strain
is a population of genetically identical individuals
virulence
strains ability to cause disease and death