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36 Cards in this Set

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Bones are a few things:
1.
2.
3.
mineral reservoirs, skeletal muscle's partners, & sites where blood cells form
M__ R__
S__ M__'s P__
S__ ___ B__ C__ F__
Bones move when _____ muscles contract.
skeletal
The ________ is the basic unit of contraction
sacromere
In sarcomeres, phosphate-group transfers from ATP activate
myosin
ATP for muscle contraction can be formed by ________
aerobic respiration, glycolysis, and creatine phosphate breakdown
A digestive system functions in
Secreting enyzymes, absorbing compounds, and eliminating wastes
Protein digestion begins in the ______.
stomach
Most nutrients are absorbed in the ________.
small intestine
Bile has roles in ______ digestion and absorption
fat
Monosaccharides and amino acids are both absorbed from the gut _____
at membrane proteins
The largest number of bacteria thrive in the
large intestines
_______ are inorganic substances with metabolic roles that no other substance can fill.
minerals
Cells directly exchange substances with ________.
interstitial fluid
All vertebrates have ________.
closed circulatory system
Which are not found in the blood
plasma, blood cells and platelets, and gasses & dissolved substances
A person who has blood type O _________.
can donate blood to a person of any type
In the blood, most oxygen is transported
in red blood cells and bound to hemoglobin
Blood flows directly from the left atrium to ______.
the left ventricle
Contraction of the ___________ drives the flow of blood through the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
ventricles
Blood pressure is highest in the _____ and lowest in the ______.
arteries, veins
At rest, the largest volume of blood is in the _____.
veins
What are the functions of the lymphatic system
filters out pathogens, returns fluid to the circulatory system, helps certain white blood cells mature
_____ are signaling molecules released from one type of cell that can alter target cell activities.
hormones, neurotransmitters, pheromones, and local signaling molecules
ADH and oxytocin are hormones produced in the hypothalamus but distributed from the ______.
posterior lobe of pituitary
Overproduction of ______ causes gigantism.
somatotropin
Which do not stimulate hormone secretions?
neural signals, local chemical changes, hormonal signals, and environmental cues
____ lowers blood sugar levels; ____ raises it.
insulin and glucagen
The pituitary detects rising hormone concentration in blood and inhibits the gland secreting the hormone. This is ______ feedback
negative
The ____ has endocrine and exocrine functions
pancreas
A freshwater fish gains most of its water by
osmosis
Bowman's capsule, the start of the tubular part of a nephron, is located in the
kidney cortex
Fluid filtered into Bowman's capsule flows directly into the
proximal tubule
Water and small solutes from blood enter nephrons during _______.
filtration and tubular secretion
Kidneys return most of the water and small solutes back to the blood by way of ______.
tubular reabsorption
ADH binds to receptors on distal tubules and collecting ducts making them ______ permeable to _______.
more; water
Increased sodium reabsorption at distal tubules ________.
will make urine more concentrated