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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Passive transport
the process of molecules moving in and out of a cell in a way that helps that cell reach equilibrium. Requires no energy.
Active transport
the process of molecules moving in and out of a cell in a way that is the opposite of reaching equilibrium. Requires energy.
the general process of the spreading of matter throughout a substance or in and out of a cell until equilibrium is reached
Facilitated diffusion
a form of passive transport where molecules are carried through the cell membrane by a transport protein
the process of a cell absorbing material through the cell membrane. Most of the substances are polar molecules so can’t get through phospholipid bilayer and must go through a protein channel. Creates a vesicle to transport the molecule through cell
the process of cells exporting unwanted material out of the cell
the process of engulfing necessary or useful materials through the cell membrane
the intake of liquid materials in the cell
a small and enclosed compartment within the cell used for storing and transporting materials
deoxyribonucleic acid. Contains genetic code and info to build proteins. Double helix located in nucleus.
nitrogenous base in DNA. Paired with Thymine or mRNA’s Uracil
nitrogenous base in DNA. Paired with Adenine.
nitrogenous base in DNA. Paired with Cytosine.
nitrogenous base in DNA. Paired with Guanine.
Base pairing rule
adenine and thymine and Guanine and cytosine are paired up in DNA’s double helix
Hydrogen bond
Weak bond which holds nitrogenous bases together. Easily broken – good because mRNA can break them and perform transcription
Double helix
shape of DNA like two twirling strands of anything
the process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
the decoding of an mRNA message into a poly-peptide chain
three-nucleotide sequence on mRNA that codes for a single amino acid
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
Genetic code
the language of mRNA instructions
Amino acids
acids that are brought by tRNA to the ribosome make a polypedtide chain
Peptide bond
the bond that attaches amino acids together to form a polypeptide chain
Polypedtide chain
a chain of amino acids linked together
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic info that is passed from one generation to the next
sequences of DNA that code for proteins and determine traits of a person
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
ribonucleic acid; consists of nucleotide monomers; temporary copy of DNA; used in synthesizing of proteins; single-stranded
messenger RNA; the copy of DNA and carries the info the make the poly peptide chain
transfer RNA; brings amino acids into robosomes; reads mRNA and builds polypeptide chain w/amino acids
ribosomal; mRNA sits on it during translation; machinery for making proteins structural component
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that binds to DNA/unwinds the double helix/uses one strand of DNA as a template for mRNA/only binds to regions of DNA called promoters that have specific base sequences and tell polymerase where to start and stop the copying process.