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38 Cards in this Set

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A limiting nutrient
a nutrient that is limited or rare in an ecosystem. this “limit” causes cellular growth which makes the cells evolutionarily different
Primary productivity of a community
the amount of biomass produced through photosynthesis per unit area and time by plants: the primary productivity
Denitrifying bacteria
microorganisms whose actions results in the conversion of nitrates in soil into atmosphere nitrogen
Nitrogen fixing
the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds useful for other chemical processes
Microscope
magnifies small objects not visible to the naked eye
Coarse focus
used to locate an object at the lowest level of magnification
Fine focus
used to focus in on am object so that you can see it clearly
Diaphragm
controls the amount of light shown onto the slide
High power objective
used to focus in on an object really close
Low power objective
used to focus broadly on an object
Power of magnification
the power of the objective lens multiplied by the power of the eypiece
Eye piece
the part of the microscope that you look through and that leads to the objective lenses
Hierarchy of life
atom→molecule→organelle→cell→tissue→organ→organ system→organism→population→community→ecosystem→biome→biosphere
Characteristics of life
ability to: reproduce; evolve; grow; respond to stimuli; retain and use energy; maintain a stable internal environment: based on a genetic code
Cell Theory
1) All living things are composed of cells; 2) Cells are basic units of structure/function; 3) New cells are produced from existing cells.
Prokaryotic cells
first kind of cells; no nucleus; loop of DNA; some internal membranes(cytoplasm/ribosomes)
Eukaryotic cells
nucleus; DNA; structures and internal membranes(membrane bound organelles); DNA separate from rest of cell
Unicellular
one celled
Multicellular
many celled
Endosymbiosis
theory that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several difference prokaryotic organisms
Animal cell
has every organelle except cell wall and chloroplast and sometimes has vacuole when doing endocytosis
Plant cell
has every organelle
Bacteria
unicellular prokaryote
Membrane bound organelle
organelles that are bound by a membrane found only in eukaryotes
Nucleus
an organelle that contains the cell’s DNA and has codes for making proteins
Endoplasmic reticulum
where lipids proteins and other materials are assembled and exported from the cell
Golgi apparatus
modifies sorts and packages proteins (etc.) from the ER for storage/exportation
Cytoskeleton
a network of protein filaments that helps with movement and helps keep the cell’s structure/shape
Mitochondria
organelles that convert chemical energy into ATP
Lysosome
small organelle filled with enzymes that break down lipids/carbs/proteins/etc.
Ribosome
where proteins are assembled based on coded instructions
Vacuole
supports heavy structures and controls the water content and does homeostasis
Cell wall
outer-most layer in plant cells that provide support/protection for the cell
Cell membrane
semi-permeable membrane that supports/protects cell and regulates what enters/leaves cell
Fluid mosaic membrane
composed of a phospholipids bilayer embedded with proteins
Phospholipid bilayer
two layered arrangement of lipids and phosphates that make up a cell membrane; heads are hydrophilic; tails are hydrophobic
Hydrophylic
attracted to water
Hydrophobic
drawn away from water