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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do organisms grow?
Cell divison produces more cells
What is the cell cycle?
Repeating sequence of cell growth and division
What is the area where sister chromatids are attached to each other called?
Describe the events of interphase?
Chromosomes double and move to opposite sides of the cell. Includes stages G1, S, G2
List the phases in order of occurance?
Prophase, Metaphase, Interphase, Anaphase, Telophase...Cytokinesis begins
How many chromosomes does each human body cell have?

Each sex cell?
46 chromosomes in body cell

23 chromosomes in sex cells
What is the function of the spindle?
It helps move the chromosomes apart during mitosis
What is cytokinesis and when does it occur?
Cytokinesis occurs after telophase and it is when two daughter cells result from a single cell
What is meiosis?
sex cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes by half(with a haploid number of chromosomes)

Becomes 4 haploid cells
What is a zygote?
The cell produced by the fusion of an egg and a sperm

It has two copies of each chromosome
What is the difference between a diploid and a haploid cell?
Diploid has 46 chromosomes(skin and body)
Haploid has 23 chromosomes
What are autosomes?
Chromosomes that are not involved in determining the sex of the offspring
Define spermatogenesis
The process by which sperm are produced in male animals.

It produces four sperm cells that have differentiated tails
What is oogenesis?
The process by which gametes are produced in females.
**Cytoplasm division is unequal during egg production
Who was Gregor Mendel?
Established the principles of heredity
Define gene and allele.
What is the minimum number of alleles that code for a particular trait?
A GENE is the unit of a chromosome that codes for various traits.

ALLELES are variations of a gene

Traits are controlled by a minimum of 2 alleles
What is a dominant trait?
The trait that you see. It prevents the recessive trait from appearing

Ex. RR or Rr
what is a recessive trait?
Appears when a dominant trait is not present

Ex. rr
What is a phenotype?
Phenotype is the physical appearance of a trait

Genotype is what the allels are

Ex. You could be Rr, but you will only see the R
What does a punnit square show you?
The PROBABLE outcome of a cross
What is meant by the term Heterozygous? Homozygous
Homozygous is 2 of the same alleles (TT or tt)

Heterozygous is 2 different alleles (Tt)
What is codominance?
When 2 different dominant alleles both show up in an organism.
(AB Blood)
What is incomplete dominance? Give an example
Cross a red flower with a white flower and end up with a pink flower