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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Study of endocrine system
Endocrine System
Body's communication Stystem
Includes: Circulatory, Nerves, Hormones, and Glands.
Adrenal Glands
Chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response
Pituitary Glands
Secretes hormones regulating homeostasis
Links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland
Body's reaction to blood increase in caffeine or alcohol
Hypotalamus communicates to pituitary via nerves -> pituitary decreases release of ADH hormone to slow down kidney so you don't hydrate, increase filtration -> Kidney -> Urinate, by morning, ADH has increased
Body's reaction to skin being cold
Hypothalamus communicates with Pituitary via nerves -> Decrease ADH causes adrenals to create more adrenaline (epinephrine)-> Adrenal glands -> muslces twitch, heart beat (pulse) increases, internal organs vasodialate, blood vessels and skin vasoconstrict. You are losing heat in skin so its trying to keep it in, have somewhere to go and generate heat.
Increase in body temperature
Nerves communicate with hypothalamus -> pituitary increases ADH -> adrenal -> decrease adrenaline -> muscles slow down, heart slow down, deep organs vasoconstrict, skin vasodialate sweat. You are heating up ont he inside so you send it out to extremities, you are hot and you sweat.
Blood vessels open
Vessels constrict
Fight or Flight
Fight an enemy/predator or run from enemy/predator
Loud Noise
Nerves -> Hypothalamus communicates with adrenal glands via nerves -> vast increase in adrenaline -> muscles twitch and fire, heart pumps faster, deep organs vasodialate, skin vasoconstrict and hair stands on end
Hair standing on end
Gets blood away from skin so if you are cut you are less liekly to bleed out. Also to make you look bigger like other furry mammals. Doesn't help us but is a legacy from other animals
Scientific Name
Binomial latinized system of naming all living things.
Carlos Linnaeus
Man who started the Latinized naming system
naming living things
existing life forms
Taxonomical Units
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
The two main contributions Linnaeus gave us with the classification system
Different things meant totatlly different things in different areas so Linneaus came up with a better system so everyone would be on the same page.
What possible part did symbiosis have in the evolution of eukaryotes?
One kind of bacteria would eat both prokaryotic, photosynnthetic Cyanobacteria eat other kinds of bacteria that had to eat for energy and not all would digest. They would stay in and would be mutualistic. The cells with both kinds would split. Those with out cyanobacteria went to to be animals or fungi and those with both evolved into plants.
Advanced; membranes with membranes; organelles have membrance around them that contain different things
Primitive; single membrance cells; All DNA and RNA are not contained-just floating around
Correct way a binomial latinized name should be written
Genus species
First letter of genus is capitalized; first letter of species is lower case.
What is strange about Lichens?
Slow growing organism of simple structure, composed of fungi and photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria living together in a symbiotic relationship and resulting in a structure that resembles neither; require no food source other than light, air and minerals
Kingdom archaea
Unicellular, Cells lack nuclei and membrane bound organelles,
Distinctive cell walls, Some autotrophs, Some heterotrophs
Kingdom Bacteria (Modern bacteria)
Unicellular, Cells lack nuclei and membrane-bounded organelles, Distinctive cell walls, Some autotrophs, Some heterotrophs
Sulfur bacteria
bacteria that are capable of metabolizing sulfur gas and releasing sulfur
typical of a plant, they perform photosynthesis with the production of oxygen, need H20
Kingdom Protista
Domain Eukarya- Simplest; Most ancient lack mitochondria; Most unicellular, Cells with nuclei and membrane-bounded organelles, Some have cell walls, Some autotrophs, Some heterotrophs
Animal-like protists (protozoans)
ameba, don’t make own food, move by allowing their cytoplasm to flow into projections call pseduopods; are among the basal eukaryotes whose cells contain mitochondria
Fungus-like protists (slime molds)
eat dead wood, brilliant colors, big fuzzy reproductive system comes out in specific conditions
Plant-like protists
white cliffs of Dover, have calcium shell for protection; Algae- have chlorophyll and can manufacture their own food; algae may be unicellular, plants are multicellular
Five characteristics of Fungi
Cell walls are composed primarily of the modified carbohydrate chitin; The storage carbohydrate of fungi is glycogen, the same as for animals; Fungi are heterotrophs, absorbing nutrients from other organisms. They do this in several ways. As saprothrophs, fungi secrete enzymes that break down dead organic matter to release sugars and amino acids. Fungi may also be parasites, breaking down nutrients within a living host. Some fungi are symbionts; Many fungi have both asexual and sexual stages to their life cycles; Fungi have some unique cell processes.
Kingom Fungi
Most multicellular; Cells with nuclei and membrane-bounded organelles; Cell walls of cellulose; Autotrophs (usually); Complex organ systems; absorpive mode of nutrient acquisistion;
Archea, Bacteria, Fungi, Plantae, Anamalia
Bread molds, destroy food, decomposers, life style and the way they get energy is animal-like, but are decomposers; moldy cheese
Sac fungi, fairy rings, colony of spores starts in center moves out eating/digesting various things, underground, edible-yeast waste product is alcohol.
club fungi, mushroom (club shape) any color, some edible, some poisonous, part above around is reproductive structures, spores
Kingdom Plantae
Plants are diverse multicellular organism that photosynthesize, have cellulose cell walls, and exhiit alternation of generations; Plants are classified by the presence or absence of transport tissues, seeds, flowers and fruits, and by molecular evidence; Multicellular; Cells with nuclei and membrane bounded organelles; Cell walls of cellulose; Autotrophs (usually; Complex organ systems
mosses, liverworts, hornworts- Most primitive plants; no roots, no stems, no flowers, no seeds; disadvantage- vulnerable, not anchored, competition for sunlight, limit where they can grow-wet rocks, cool shady moist areas, have to be close to ground
Seedless vascular plants
(club mosses, horsetails, ferns)- can transport water up and down their system, have stems, roots, are stable and are not as vulnerable; horsetails- full of glass like substance; beginnings of leaves and spores; ferns- more advanced than others; disadvantage- spores have to find habitat quickly and reproduce
(naked seed plants such as pine trees)- have female eggs and male pollen; pine cone is female part, creates seed but don’t have much of a covering, still no flowers, seeds can sit around for a while, don’t want baby plants to grow up next to parents they would compete-rely on wind to carry away
(flowering seed plants)- have flowers, seeds with layers, stems, leaves, evolved flowers with nectar to attract animals to help with process- bumble bee comes in and gets pollen dropped on them goes to next flower plant equivalent to primate- grass
Kingdom Animalia
Multicellular; Cells with nuclei and membrane bounded organelles; No cell walls; Hetertrophs (by ingestion); Complex organ systems
sponges)- suck water in, filter nutrients out, can get torn apart and come back together
Sponge Cell Types
The body wall consists of an outer layer of cells called pinacocytes and an innter layer of flagellated cells called choanocytes or “collar cells.” Amoebocytes can digest food, store and transport nutrients, dived or secrete skeletal components called spicules. Sponge skeletons consit of individual slivers of glassy or limy spicules within a mesh of a protein called spogin
(jellyfish, hydroids, and sea anemones)- have organ systems, nervous systems, muscles; Hydra- related to jelly fish, bud; sting cells at tips of tentacles with poison to numb; digestive system is sac with one opening in and out; been around almost one billion years; made of calcium; acelomate- no body cavity, filled with tissue/cells; cavity within a guy muscle layer; celomate- body cavity- guts pile in; advanced trait that allowed for cavity
(flatworms, tapeworms)- pre-living- don’t have host, find food; flatworm- complex organ system, has eyes, both reproductive organs, no anus, acelomic; scavengers- eat dead stuff; fluke- flat worm that is parasitic; tape worm- in intestines, sections with eggs get loose, hook into intestines, non segmented- no brain, fingers, systems
Round Worms
(round worms)- both pre-living and parasitic- first of all animals to have anus, pseudo-celomatic- can eat tissue, get in brain, heart; found in warmer atmospheres such as Africa where there isn’t good treatment
(segmented worms, Earthworms, leeches)- true celomatic body, true segmented body, permits specialization evolve in organs ex. Brain, spine, stomach
Chiton clam- 50 eyes, armor, rabula, mantle, foot, segmentation, have arms, eat rock, get bacteria, poop out limestone
(a)Snails and slugs-amazing eyes on stalks
(b)Clams, oysters, and scallops
(c)Squid, octopi- amazing brains, big eyes
(joint-legged animals)-more mobile, segment jaw, all groups after stay segmented
(a)Arachnids (scorpions, spiders, mites, ticks)
(b)Crustacea (shrimp, crabs, lobsters)-horse shoe crab, segmented limbs are what made claws possible
(c)Centipedes and millipedes-even though are tiny- are segmented
(d)Insects- Beatles are the most diverse group; body louse-segmented limbs, parasitic, latch on, don’t let go; tics are related to spiders, butterflies are most successful of arthropods
got rid of eyes, brains, a lot of muscles but kept segmentation
(a) Starfish- two feet, hard shell; sea cucumbers-inch to feet long- stuff on outside to protect, soft shell, animal hides in butt of cucumber
group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. They are united by having, at some time in their life, a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a muscular tail extending past the anus.
Precambrian Era (from summary sheet)
The earth's crust, early oxygen-free atmosphere, and oceans form; Prokaryotic, anarobic bacteria evolve;
Photosynthesis evoloves; Oxygen is present in atmosphere; the poisonous gas oxygen probably caused mass extinction of anaerobic life forms; aerobic respiration evolves; protists, algae, fungi, animals evolve; pretty much all life was in the water, nothing on land
Paleozoic Era - Cambrian Period
tremendous explosion of life forms. This was the first of the great adaptive radiations of most early life forms; first invertebrate animals evolved such as sponges, jellyfist, snails, clams, squid, trilobites; Trilobites with keen vision, speed, agility, and thick armor came to rule; Giant sea scorpions evolved and were major predator or trilobites (who start their decline.) Cambrian ended with a mass extinction took place where nearly 50% of all living species went extinct
Paleozoic Era- Ordovician Period
Adaptive radiation of marine life; fish without jaws first evolved; global cooling ended the period causing mass extinction of many marine life forms (first of five great mass extinctions)
Paleozoic Era- Silurian Period
Plants invaded land and vertebrates with jaws showed up in the seas; to avoid competition evolve into place where nothing is, life had ot figure out how to retain water in cells because it is no longer in water. Took a very long time. Once plants got foot hold on land there was no predation and there was an explosion of plants
Age of Fish
Devonian Period
Age of Amphibians
Carboniferous Period
The Age of Reptiles and The Age of Gymnosperms
Mesozic Era
The Age of Mammals and The Age of Flowering Plants
Cenozoic Era
Five Great Mass Extinctions
1. Ending Ordovician- got rid of many marine life forms; 2. Ending Devonian- got rid of most of jawless fish; 3. Ending Permian- greatest, 50% of all terrestrial animal species and 95% of all marine species went extinct, last of trilobites died out; 4. Middle of Mesozoic Era- life in the ocean; 5. Ending Mesozoic- got rid of dinosaurs
Paleozoic Era-Devonian Period
Rapid evolution of vertebrates in the sea; Age of fish begins; preparation for the vertebrate invasion of land began at this time; first tetropod limbs and first lungs evolve; first amphibian crawled out of the water; Crabs and Isopods first to invade land, there are some that live on land, others that live close to land, and others which live in water; Placoderm-jaw with teeth- powerful; Relatives of sharks and rays start involve; fish with lungs and hand bones in fins
Paleozoic Era- Carboniferous Period
The first forests evolved and spread; insects invade land, insects first animals to invade the air; The age of Amphibians, amphibians and insects experienced their great adaptive radiation; reptiles evolved; world was full of bogs and swamps and a lot of vegetation led to a lot of coal
Paleozoic Era- Permian Period
The permian was a time of great environmetnal stress-cooler and drier; climate caused amphibians to decline; rise of seed plants and reptiles; primitive reptile that will become dinosaurs evolved; Therapsids dominated and diversified;
Mesozoic Era
The age or reptiles and gymnosperms; first true mammals appeared; adaptive radiation of marine invertabrates, fish, dinosaurs, gymnosperms; the flying reptiles invade the air; 4th mass extinction of life in the oceans; Dinos and Mammals survive; Adaptive radiation of Dinos; The first birds appear-Dinos with feathers; Great dinos were in their peak of diversity; primitive mammals were wating in the wings; flowering plants evolved
Cenozoic Era
Age of mammals and age of flowering plants; flowering plants, insects, birds and mammals all experience adaptive radiation; 60 billion years ago the first primate evolve; diversity of giant mammals occcur then declind; first hominids walk the earth; many species of early humans evolve, human evolution appears rapid; Mega fauna (big birds and mammals) mass extinction begins 20000 years before present; between 40 and 100,000 years ago modern human evolves and spread across the planet
Simlarities between humans and other mammals
only mammals share traits such as hair, 3 ear bones, and production of milk
Similarities between humans and other primates
Humans share dozens of traits with other primates; well developed clavicles, shoulder joint movement of the arm in most directions; flattened finger and toe nails, finger tips that are well devlelped for sense of thouch, skeletons for walking upright
Similarities between humans and chimps
DNA of the two species 98.5% match; chimps and humans use tools and make tools, laugh and go to war, blood protein exactly the same
Piltdown man
England, wanted that to be origin of species - was a hoax - put together pieces of skull and put a tool in there that looked like a cricket back - still ignoring Africa tried to convince Piltdown man was real
Human Evolution
Australopithcus- had smaller braines; Homo habilis, erectus, sapien- made tools had bigger brains, jaws and teeth are more human like
Leeky Family
Mary and Richard; family made made many great discoveries
Skeleton found about 3 Million years ago
First Butcher
found bones that looked like knives were being used to get meat off bone
Found fossil human footprints in Africa and it is 4 million years old and oldest evidence that humans walk up right
6.5 Million Year Old skeleton
Found by Mary Leeky; it was 50/50 human/ chimp in characteristics; thought to be first ancestor of homo erecturs