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13 Cards in this Set

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Technical term for DNA fingerprinting
Restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Plasmids
small, circular,extra chromosomal peices of DNA used in genetic engineering.
Naturally found in bacteria, they "cut" DNA and are used against viruses and protects against infection.
Restriction enzymes
What are the two types of cuts made by Restriction Enzymes?
Blunt ends and Sticky ends.
What does it mean to have blunt ends?
A cut is made straight across the DNA.
What does it mean to have sticky ends?
The cut is not straight and on each peice there is more of one side of the base pairs. This means that they can make hydrogen bonds more easily.
What is divergent evolution?
Divergent evolution is the process of a species evolving into two or more different species.
What happens in adaptive radiation?
A species will evolve into many different species
What is the definition of a species?
A group of similar organisms who can potentially interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
What are the barriers that help form different species?
Geographic isolation and Sympatric speciation.
What happens in geographic isolation?
The species is separated geographicly and cannot interbreed.
What happens in sympatric speciation?
A genetic barrier is formed. This is common in asexual plants where a genetic mutation means that they cannot interbreed, but because the plant is asexual, it can still produce offspring.
What is involved in natural selection?
Variation, mutations are formed, crossing over happens and sexual reproduction occurs.

Some of the variations are adaptive. This would mean that it increases an induviduals chance to survive and reproduce.

The adaptive value of the trait is determined by selective pressures that act on the phenotype such as:

predation
climate
food
disease
habitat
mates
water
parasites