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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the study of biology?
The study of living things.
List, describe and define the characteristics of all living things.
Organization, homeostasis, adaptation, reproduction & heredity, growth & development, energy acquisition and release, detection and response to stimuli, interactions.
What are the steps in the scientific method?
Observation, inference, problem, hypothesis, prediction statement, experimental design, procedure, data collection, analysis/conclusion.
What are the independent variables, dependent varibles, extraneous variables and controls?
The independent variables are the variables that are changed in the experiment. The dependent variables are the measurable varibles that result from the independent variables. The extraneous variables are the variables that were not accounted for but may have affected the experiment. The controls are the groups made for comparison.
What is qualitative and quantitative date? How are they described in biological studies?
Qualitative data is descriptive data, explained in words & quantitative data is measured data, shown in graphys and charts.
What is an organism?
Any unicellular or multicellular form exhibiting all the characteristics of life.
What is a species?
A group of related organisms that share a more or less distinctive form and are capable of interbreeding.
What is a population?
A group of organisms of the same species populating a given area.
What is a community?
All the groups of organisms living together in the same area, usually interacting or depending on each other for existence.
What is an ecosystem?
A dynamic complex of plant, animal, and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit.
What is a biome?
An entire community of living organisms in a single major ecological area.
What is a biosphere?
The portion of Earth and its atmosphere that can support life.
What are biotic factors? (Give examples.)
Organisms that live in, and interact with, the environment.

(Any organism within an environment.)
What are abiotic factors? (Give examples.)
The non-living components of an environment.

(Air, rocks, soil, water.)
What is an autotroph?
An organism that can make its own food.
What is a heterotroph?
An organism that is not capable of making its own food.
What is a carnivore?
An animal that feeds on other animals.
What is an omnivore?
An animal that eats both plants and other animals.
What is a producer?
Any organism that is capable of producing its own food.
What is a consumer?
Any organism that cannot produce its own food and must, therefore, get its energy by eating, or consuming, other organisms.
What is a decomposer? (Give examples.)
An organism that breaks down organic matter into inorganic form.

What is evolution?
The process by which all forms of plant and animal life change slowly over time because of slight variations in the genes that one generation passes down to the next.
What is diffusion?
The movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
What is osmosis?
The movement of a substance dissolved in a solution with a lower concentration through a membrane to a solution with a higher concentration.
Precipitation and evaporation are important components of which cycle?
The water cycle.
Nitrogen fixation, conversion of nitrogen from decaying organisms into ammonia, and conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into usable organic compounds are important components of which cycle? (What are the organisms responsible for this?)
The nitrogen cycle.

What is symbiosis? What are the three types of symbiosis? (Give examples.)
A close ecological relationship between organisms of different species. Mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.

(Mutualism = +/+: Ant & Tree. Commensalism = +/-+: Bird's Nest in Tree. Parasitism = +/-: Cow & Tick.
What is succession?
The gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established.
What is primary succession?
The ecological succession of vegetation that occurs in passing from barren earth or water to a climax community.
What is a climax community?
A relatively stable, long-lasting community reached in a successional series; usually determined by climate and soil type.
Compare & contrast the photic and aphotic zones of the ocean.
The photic zone contains light, while the aphotic zone does not.
What is plankton?
Photosynthetic organisms that float in the photic zones of ocean; foundation of oceanic food web.
Coldest & driest biome. Basically treeless, yet contains dwarfed plants. Extremely low temperatures, precipitation, and relatively poor nutrients. Short growing season. Contains permafrost.
Deciduous Forest.
Average temperatures and above average rainfall. Trees lose their leaves in the winter.
Tropical Rain Forest.
High average temperature and rainfall. Large leaved plants and diverse # of organisms.
Extreme heat/dryness. Low precipitation and rain fall/humidity. Plants adapted to storing water. Animals and plants highly adapted to extremem conditions.
Temperate Grasslands.
Warm & dry, with average rainfall. Main plant life is grass.
What are the 3 major components of atoms?
Electrons, protons, & neutrons.
What are the 4 elements that make up 98% of all living matter?
Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, & oxygen.
What do all organic compounds have in common?
They are all carbon-based.
The cell membrane is made up of which organic compound?
Lipids; phospholipid bi-layer.
What are nucleic acids? (Give 2 examples.)
Complex macromolecules that store genetic information.

(DNA & RNA.)
What is chromatic composed of?
Strands of condensed DNA.
Animals store glucose in the form of?
Glycogen; glucose polymers.
Plants store glucose in the form of?
Starch; glucose polymers.
Draw & label the pH scale.
0-6 = Acidic (H+), 7 = Neutral, 8-14 = Basic (OH).
List and describe the 3 main ideas of the cell theory.
A.) All organisms are composed of one or more cells. B.) The cell is the basic unit of life. C.) All cells originate from pre-existing cells.
Name the three organelles that distinguish a plant cell. List a function for each.
Chloroplasts - used to produce energy (photosynthesis). Centriole Vacuole - pumps excess water out of cell to prevent it from exploding. Cell Wall - protects cytoskeleton.
Why is the cell membrane referred to as selectively permeable?
Only alllows certain things to cross the membrane.
Why is the cell membrane considered the most important structure in maintaining homeostasis?
By controlling what substances enter or leave the cell, it allows the cell to remain balanced.
The disperersal of ink in a beaker of water is an example of?
Light energy is converted into chemical energy by the process of?
List the equation for photosynthesis. What are the end products?
6CO2 + 6H20 + light energy (chlorophyll needed) -> C6H12O6 + 6O2; oxygen & sugar.
What are the products of the light reaction? Where do the light reactions take place?
Oxygen, ATP, NADPH. Occurs in the thylakoid membrane.
What are the products of the Calvin Cycle? Where does the cycle take place?
ATP & NADPH, glucose (simple sugars). Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplasts.
List the equation for respiration. What are the end products?
C6H12O6 -> 6O2 + 6CO2; water and carbon dioxide.
What are the products of glycolysis? Where is glycolysis carried out?
2 ATP, 2 pyruvates. Occurs in the cytoplasm.
List an important electron carrier found in glycolysis.
What are the products of the Kreb's cycle? Where does the cycle take place?
ATP, NADH, FADH2. Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria.